loop - python dictionary get key from value




Add new keys to a dictionary? (14)

Is it possible to add a key to a Python dictionary after it has been created? It doesn't seem to have an .add() method.


"Is it possible to add a key to a Python dictionary after it has been created? It doesn't seem to have an .add() method."

Yes it is possible, and it does have a method that implements this, but you don't want to use it directly.

To demonstrate how and how not to use it, let's create an empty dict with the dict literal, {}:

my_dict = {}

Best Practice 1: Subscript notation

To update this dict with a single new key and value, you can use the subscript notation (see Mappings here) that provides for item assignment:

my_dict['new key'] = 'new value'

my_dict is now:

{'new key': 'new value'}

Best Practice 2: The update method - 2 ways

We can also update the dict with multiple values efficiently as well using the update method. We may be unnecessarily creating an extra dict here, so we hope our dict has already been created and came from or was used for another purpose:

my_dict.update({'key 2': 'value 2', 'key 3': 'value 3'})

my_dict is now:

{'key 2': 'value 2', 'key 3': 'value 3', 'new key': 'new value'}

Another efficient way of doing this with the update method is with keyword arguments, but since they have to be legitimate python words, you can't have spaces or special symbols or start the name with a number, but many consider this a more readable way to create keys for a dict, and here we certainly avoid creating an extra unnecessary dict:

my_dict.update(foo='bar', foo2='baz')

and my_dict is now:

{'key 2': 'value 2', 'key 3': 'value 3', 'new key': 'new value', 
 'foo': 'bar', 'foo2': 'baz'}

So now we have covered three Pythonic ways of updating a dict.


Magic method, __setitem__, and why it should be avoided

There's another way of updating a dict that you shouldn't use, which uses the __setitem__ method. Here's an example of how one might use the __setitem__ method to add a key-value pair to a dict, and a demonstration of the poor performance of using it:

>>> d = {}
>>> d.__setitem__('foo', 'bar')
>>> d
{'foo': 'bar'}


>>> def f():
...     d = {}
...     for i in xrange(100):
...         d['foo'] = i
... 
>>> def g():
...     d = {}
...     for i in xrange(100):
...         d.__setitem__('foo', i)
... 
>>> import timeit
>>> number = 100
>>> min(timeit.repeat(f, number=number))
0.0020880699157714844
>>> min(timeit.repeat(g, number=number))
0.005071878433227539

So we see that using the subscript notation is actually much faster than using __setitem__. Doing the Pythonic thing, that is, using the language in the way it was intended to be used, usually is both more readable and computationally efficient.


This popular question addresses functional methods of merging dictionaries a and b.

Here are some of the more straightforward methods (tested in Python 3)...

c = dict( a, **b ) ## see also https://.com/q/2255878
c = dict( list(a.items()) + list(b.items()) )
c = dict( i for d in [a,b] for i in d.items() )

Note: The first method above only works if the keys in b are strings.

To add or modify a single element, the b dictionary would contain only that one element...

c = dict( a, **{'d':'dog'} ) ## returns a dictionary based on 'a'

This is equivalent to...

def functional_dict_add( dictionary, key, value ):
   temp = dictionary.copy()
   temp[key] = value
   return temp

c = functional_dict_add( a, 'd', 'dog' )

I feel like consolidating info about Python dictionaries:

Creating an empty dictionary

data = {}
# OR
data = dict()

Creating a dictionary with initial values

data = {'a':1,'b':2,'c':3}
# OR
data = dict(a=1, b=2, c=3)
# OR
data = {k: v for k, v in (('a', 1),('b',2),('c',3))}

Inserting/Updating a single value

data['a']=1  # Updates if 'a' exists, else adds 'a'
# OR
data.update({'a':1})
# OR
data.update(dict(a=1))
# OR
data.update(a=1)

Inserting/Updating multiple values

data.update({'c':3,'d':4})  # Updates 'c' and adds 'd'

Creating a merged dictionary without modifying originals

data3 = {}
data3.update(data)  # Modifies data3, not data
data3.update(data2)  # Modifies data3, not data2

Deleting items in dictionary

del data[key]  # Removes specific element in a dictionary
data.pop(key)  # Removes the key & returns the value
data.clear()  # Clears entire dictionary

Check if a key is already in dictionary

key in data

Iterate through pairs in a dictionary

for key in data: # Iterates just through the keys, ignoring the values
for key, value in d.items(): # Iterates through the pairs
for key in d.keys(): # Iterates just through key, ignoring the values
for value in d.values(): # Iterates just through value, ignoring the keys

Create a dictionary from 2 lists

data = dict(zip(list_with_keys, list_with_values))

Feel free to add more!


I would do it like this. Watch out for the directory[name]=number part.

n = int(raw_input())
directory={}
entry={}
# store the values as if they appear in the stdin
for i in xrange(n):
    name, number = raw_input().split()
    directory[name]=number

#  query the values    
while (True):
    queryname = (str) (raw_input())
    try:
        strdisp = queryname + "=" + directory[queryname]
        print strdisp
    except:
      print 'Not found'

If you're not joining two dictionaries, but adding new key-value pairs to a dictionary, then using the subscript notation seems like the best way.

import timeit

timeit.timeit('dictionary = {"karga": 1, "darga": 2}; dictionary.update({"aaa": 123123, "asd": 233})')
>> 0.49582505226135254

timeit.timeit('dictionary = {"karga": 1, "darga": 2}; dictionary["aaa"] = 123123; dictionary["asd"] = 233;')
>> 0.20782899856567383

However, if you'd like to add, for example, thousands of new key-value pairs, you should consider using the update() method.


It has a update method which you can use like this:

dict.update({"key" : "value"})


So many answers and still everybody forgot about the strangely named, oddly behaved, and yet still handy dict.setdefault()

This

value = my_dict.setdefault(key, default)

basically just does this:

try:
    value = my_dict[key]
except KeyError: # key not found
    value = my_dict[key] = default

e.g.

>>> mydict = {'a':1, 'b':2, 'c':3}
>>> mydict.setdefault('d', 4)
4 # returns new value at mydict['d']
>>> print(mydict)
{'a':1, 'b':2, 'c':3, 'd':4} # a new key/value pair was indeed added
# but see what happens when trying it on an existing key...
>>> mydict.setdefault('a', 111)
1 # old value was returned
>>> print(mydict)
{'a':1, 'b':2, 'c':3, 'd':4} # existing key was ignored


Use the subscript assignment operator:

d['x'] = "value"

Don't forget that Python's key can by anything hashable which means bool, int, string even a tuple or any objects hashable.


Yeah, it's pretty easy. Just do the following:

dict["key"] = "value"

you can create one

class myDict(dict):

    def __init__(self):
        self = dict()

    def add(self, key, value):
        self[key] = value

## example

myd = myDict()
myd.add('apples',6)
myd.add('bananas',3)
print(myd)

gives

>>> 
{'apples': 6, 'bananas': 3}

>>> d = {'key':'value'}
>>> print(d)
{'key': 'value'}
>>> d['mynewkey'] = 'mynewvalue'
>>> print(d)
{'mynewkey': 'mynewvalue', 'key': 'value'}

data = {}
data['a'] = 'A'
data['b'] = 'B'

for key, value in data.iteritems():
    print "%s-%s" % (key, value)

results in

a-A
b-B

dictionary[key] = value




dictionary