sql - 分页实现 - 数据库查询limit




在SQL Server中分页结果的最佳方式是什么? (10)

如果您还希望获得结果总数(在分页之前),在SQL Server 2000,2005,2008,2012中对结果进行分页的最佳方式(性能明智)是什么?


MSDN:ROW_NUMBER(Transact-SQL)

返回结果集分区内的一行的连续编号,从1开始,为每个分区中的第一行。

以下示例按照OrderDate的顺序返回数字为50到60的行。

WITH OrderedOrders AS
(
    SELECT
        ROW_NUMBER() OVER(ORDER BY FirstName DESC) AS RowNumber, 
        FirstName, LastName, ROUND(SalesYTD,2,1) AS "Sales YTD"
    FROM [dbo].[vSalesPerson]
) 
SELECT RowNumber, 
    FirstName, LastName, Sales YTD 
FROM OrderedOrders 
WHERE RowNumber > 50 AND RowNumber < 60;
  RowNumber FirstName    LastName               SalesYTD
  --- -----------  ---------------------- -----------------
  1   Linda        Mitchell               4251368.54
  2   Jae          Pak                    4116871.22
  3   Michael      Blythe                 3763178.17
  4   Jillian      Carson                 3189418.36
  5   Ranjit       Varkey Chudukatil      3121616.32
  6   José         Saraiva                2604540.71
  7   Shu          Ito                    2458535.61
  8   Tsvi         Reiter                 2315185.61
  9   Rachel       Valdez                 1827066.71
  10  Tete         Mensa-Annan            1576562.19
  11  David        Campbell               1573012.93
  12  Garrett      Vargas                 1453719.46
  13  Lynn         Tsoflias               1421810.92
  14  Pamela       Ansman-Wolfe           1352577.13

从SQL Server 2012开始,我们可以使用OFFSETFETCH NEXT子句来实现分页。

试试这个,对于SQL Server:

在SQL Server 2012中,ORDER BY子句中添加了一项新功能,用于查询集合数据的优化,使用T-SQL编写的数据分页以及SQL Server中的整个执行计划的工作更轻松。

在前面的示例中使用相同逻辑的T-SQL脚本下方。

--CREATING A PAGING WITH OFFSET and FETCH clauses IN "SQL SERVER 2012"
DECLARE @PageNumber AS INT, @RowspPage AS INT
SET @PageNumber = 2
SET @RowspPage = 10 
SELECT ID_EXAMPLE, NM_EXAMPLE, DT_CREATE
FROM TB_EXAMPLE
ORDER BY ID_EXAMPLE
OFFSET ((@PageNumber - 1) * @RowspPage) ROWS
FETCH NEXT @RowspPage ROWS ONLY;

TechNet:使用SQL Server分页查询


以下用例看起来很容易使用,而且快速只需设置页码。

use AdventureWorks
DECLARE @RowsPerPage INT = 10, @PageNumber INT = 6;
with result as(
SELECT SalesOrderDetailID, SalesOrderID, ProductID,
ROW_NUMBER() OVER (ORDER BY SalesOrderDetailID) AS RowNum
FROM Sales.SalesOrderDetail
where 1=1
)
select SalesOrderDetailID, SalesOrderID, ProductID from result
WHERE result.RowNum BETWEEN ((@PageNumber-1)*@RowsPerPage)+1
AND @RowsPerPage*(@PageNumber)

也与CTE

use AdventureWorks
DECLARE @RowsPerPage INT = 10, @PageNumber INT = 6
SELECT SalesOrderDetailID, SalesOrderID, ProductID
FROM (
SELECT SalesOrderDetailID, SalesOrderID, ProductID,
ROW_NUMBER() OVER (ORDER BY SalesOrderDetailID) AS RowNum
FROM Sales.SalesOrderDetail
where 1=1
 ) AS SOD
WHERE SOD.RowNum BETWEEN ((@PageNumber-1)*@RowsPerPage)+1
AND @RowsPerPage*(@PageNumber)

http://www.codeproject.com/KB/aspnet/PagingLarge.aspx对不同的分页技术有很好的概述

我经常使用ROWCOUNT方法,主要是使用SQL Server 2000(与2005和2008一起工作,只是测量与ROW_NUMBER相比的性能),它闪电般快,但您需要确保已排序的列(主要)独特的价值。


对于ROW_NUMBER技术,如果您没有要使用的排序列,则可以使用CURRENT_TIMESTAMP ,如下所示:

SELECT TOP 20 
    col1,
    col2,
    col3,
    col4
FROM (
    SELECT 
         tbl.col1 AS col1
        ,tbl.col2 AS col2
        ,tbl.col3 AS col3
        ,tbl.col4 AS col4
        ,ROW_NUMBER() OVER (
            ORDER BY CURRENT_TIMESTAMP
            ) AS sort_row
    FROM dbo.MyTable tbl
    ) AS query
WHERE query.sort_row > 10
ORDER BY query.sort_row

对于超过700,000个表格尺寸的搜索,这一点非常有效。

这提取记录11到30。


对于SQL Server 2000,您可以使用具有IDENTITY列的表变量来模拟ROW_NUMBER():

DECLARE @pageNo int -- 1 based
DECLARE @pageSize int
SET @pageNo = 51
SET @pageSize = 20

DECLARE @firstRecord int
DECLARE @lastRecord int
SET @firstRecord = (@pageNo - 1) * @pageSize + 1 -- 1001
SET @lastRecord = @firstRecord + @pageSize - 1   -- 1020

DECLARE @orderedKeys TABLE (
  rownum int IDENTITY NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY CLUSTERED,
  TableKey int NOT NULL
)

SET ROWCOUNT @lastRecord
INSERT INTO @orderedKeys (TableKey) SELECT ID FROM Orders WHERE OrderDate >= '1980-01-01' ORDER BY OrderDate

SET ROWCOUNT 0

SELECT t.*
FROM Orders t
  INNER JOIN @orderedKeys o ON o.TableKey = t.ID
WHERE o.rownum >= @firstRecord
ORDER BY o.rownum

这种方法可以扩展到具有多列键的表,并且不会导致使用OR(跳过索引使用)的性能开销。 不足之处在于,如果数据集非常大,而且一个临近最后一页,则临时空间用完了。 在这种情况下,我没有测试光标性能,但它可能会更好。

请注意,这种方法可以针对第一页数据进行优化。 此外,因为TOP不接受SQL Server 2000中的变量,所以使用了ROWCOUNT。


您没有指定您使用的语言和驱动程序。 所以我抽象地描述它。

  • 创建一个可滚动的结果集/数据集。 这需要桌子上的主人,
  • 跳到最后
  • 请求行数
  • 跳转到页面的开始处
  • 滚动行直到页面结束

我也很好奇微软为什么不支持在MySQL或PostgreSQL中使用offset/limit简单查询。 最后,发布Microsoft SQL Server 2012 ,我真的很喜欢它的分页简单性,你不必使用像这里回答的复杂查询。

为了获得下一个10行,只需运行这个查询:

SELECT * FROM TableName ORDER BY id OFFSET 10 ROWS FETCH NEXT 10 ROWS ONLY;

http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/gg699618.aspx

使用它时要考虑的要点:

  • ORDER BY必须使用OFFSET和FETCH子句。
  • FETCH必须使用OFFSET子句。 你永远不能使用ORDER BY ... FETCH。
  • 在相同的查询表达式中,TOP不能与OFFSET和FETCH组合。

这些是我在SQL服务器端分页查询结果的解决方案。 这些方法在SQL Server 2008和2012之间是不同的。另外,我添加了过滤和排序的概念。 当您在GridView中进行分页和过滤时,它非常高效。

在测试之前,您必须创建一个样本表并在此表中插入一行:(在现实世界中,您必须更改Where子句考虑您的表字段,并且可能在select的主要部分中有一些联接和子查询)

Create Table VLT
(
    ID int IDentity(1,1),
    Name nvarchar(50),
    Tel Varchar(20)
)
GO


Insert INTO VLT
VALUES
    ('NAME' + Convert(varchar(10),@@identity),'FAMIL' + Convert(varchar(10),@@identity))
GO 500000

在所有这些示例中,我希望每页查询200行,并且正在获取页码为1200的行。

在SQL Server 2008中,您可以使用CTE概念。 因此,我为SQL Server 2008+编写了两种类型的查询

- SQL Server 2008+

DECLARE @PageNumber Int = 1200
DECLARE @PageSize INT = 200
DECLARE @SortByField int = 1 --The field used for sort by
DECLARE @SortOrder nvarchar(255) = 'ASC' --ASC or DESC
DECLARE @FilterType nvarchar(255) = 'None' --The filter type, as defined on the client side (None/Contain/NotContain/Match/NotMatch/True/False/)
DECLARE @FilterValue nvarchar(255) = '' --The value the user gave for the filter
DECLARE @FilterColumn int = 1 --The column to wich the filter is applied, represents the column number like when we send the information.

SELECT 
  Data.ID,
  Data.Name,
  Data.Tel
FROM
  (  
    SELECT 
      ROW_NUMBER() 
        OVER( ORDER BY 
                CASE WHEN @SortByField = 1 AND @SortOrder = 'ASC'
                      THEN VLT.ID END ASC,
                CASE WHEN @SortByField = 1 AND @SortOrder = 'DESC'
                      THEN VLT.ID END DESC,
                CASE WHEN @SortByField = 2 AND @SortOrder = 'ASC'
                      THEN VLT.Name END ASC,
                CASE WHEN @SortByField = 2 AND @SortOrder = 'DESC'
                      THEN VLT.Name END ASC,
                CASE WHEN @SortByField = 3 AND @SortOrder = 'ASC'
                      THEN VLT.Tel END ASC,
                CASE WHEN @SortByField = 3 AND @SortOrder = 'DESC'
                      THEN VLT.Tel END ASC
         ) AS RowNum
      ,*  
    FROM VLT 
    WHERE
      ( -- We apply the filter logic here
        CASE
          WHEN @FilterType = 'None' THEN 1

          -- Name column filter
          WHEN @FilterType = 'Contain' AND @FilterColumn = 1
            AND ( -- In this case, when the filter value is empty, we want to show everything.
                VLT.ID LIKE '%' + @FilterValue + '%'
               OR
                @FilterValue = ''
               ) THEN 1
          WHEN @FilterType = 'NotContain' AND @FilterColumn = 1
            AND ( -- In this case, when the filter value is empty, we want to show everything.
                VLT.ID NOT LIKE '%' + @FilterValue + '%'
               OR
                @FilterValue = ''
               ) THEN 1
          WHEN @FilterType = 'Match' AND @FilterColumn = 1
            AND VLT.ID = @FilterValue THEN 1
          WHEN @FilterType = 'NotMatch' AND @FilterColumn = 1
            AND VLT.ID <> @FilterValue THEN 1               

          -- Name column filter
          WHEN @FilterType = 'Contain' AND @FilterColumn = 2
            AND ( -- In this case, when the filter value is empty, we want to show everything.
                VLT.Name LIKE '%' + @FilterValue + '%'
               OR
                @FilterValue = ''
               ) THEN 1
          WHEN @FilterType = 'NotContain' AND @FilterColumn = 2
            AND ( -- In this case, when the filter value is empty, we want to show everything.
                VLT.Name NOT LIKE '%' + @FilterValue + '%'
               OR
                @FilterValue = ''
               ) THEN 1
          WHEN @FilterType = 'Match' AND @FilterColumn = 2
            AND VLT.Name = @FilterValue THEN 1
          WHEN @FilterType = 'NotMatch' AND @FilterColumn = 2
            AND VLT.Name <> @FilterValue THEN 1         

         -- Tel column filter   
         WHEN @FilterType = 'Contain' AND @FilterColumn = 3
            AND ( -- In this case, when the filter value is empty, we want to show everything.
                VLT.Tel LIKE '%' + @FilterValue + '%'
               OR
                @FilterValue = ''
               ) THEN 1
          WHEN @FilterType = 'NotContain' AND @FilterColumn = 3
            AND ( -- In this case, when the filter value is empty, we want to show everything.
                VLT.Tel NOT LIKE '%' + @FilterValue + '%'
               OR
                @FilterValue = ''
               ) THEN 1
          WHEN @FilterType = 'Match' AND @FilterColumn = 3
            AND VLT.Tel = @FilterValue THEN 1
          WHEN @FilterType = 'NotMatch' AND @FilterColumn = 3
            AND VLT.Tel <> @FilterValue THEN 1    

        END
      ) = 1   
  ) AS Data
WHERE Data.RowNum > @PageSize * (@PageNumber - 1)
  AND Data.RowNum <= @PageSize * @PageNumber
ORDER BY Data.RowNum

GO

而SQL Server 2008+中的第二个CTE解决方案

DECLARE @PageNumber Int = 1200
DECLARE @PageSize INT = 200
DECLARE @SortByField int = 1 --The field used for sort by
DECLARE @SortOrder nvarchar(255) = 'ASC' --ASC or DESC
DECLARE @FilterType nvarchar(255) = 'None' --The filter type, as defined on the client side (None/Contain/NotContain/Match/NotMatch/True/False/)
DECLARE @FilterValue nvarchar(255) = '' --The value the user gave for the filter
DECLARE @FilterColumn int = 1 --The column to wich the filter is applied, represents the column number like when we send the information.

;WITH
  Data_CTE
  AS
  (  
    SELECT 
      ROW_NUMBER() 
        OVER( ORDER BY 
                CASE WHEN @SortByField = 1 AND @SortOrder = 'ASC'
                      THEN VLT.ID END ASC,
                CASE WHEN @SortByField = 1 AND @SortOrder = 'DESC'
                      THEN VLT.ID END DESC,
                CASE WHEN @SortByField = 2 AND @SortOrder = 'ASC'
                      THEN VLT.Name END ASC,
                CASE WHEN @SortByField = 2 AND @SortOrder = 'DESC'
                      THEN VLT.Name END ASC,
                CASE WHEN @SortByField = 3 AND @SortOrder = 'ASC'
                      THEN VLT.Tel END ASC,
                CASE WHEN @SortByField = 3 AND @SortOrder = 'DESC'
                      THEN VLT.Tel END ASC
         ) AS RowNum
      ,*  
    FROM VLT
    WHERE
      ( -- We apply the filter logic here
        CASE
          WHEN @FilterType = 'None' THEN 1

          -- Name column filter
          WHEN @FilterType = 'Contain' AND @FilterColumn = 1
            AND ( -- In this case, when the filter value is empty, we want to show everything.
                VLT.ID LIKE '%' + @FilterValue + '%'
               OR
                @FilterValue = ''
               ) THEN 1
          WHEN @FilterType = 'NotContain' AND @FilterColumn = 1
            AND ( -- In this case, when the filter value is empty, we want to show everything.
                VLT.ID NOT LIKE '%' + @FilterValue + '%'
               OR
                @FilterValue = ''
               ) THEN 1
          WHEN @FilterType = 'Match' AND @FilterColumn = 1
            AND VLT.ID = @FilterValue THEN 1
          WHEN @FilterType = 'NotMatch' AND @FilterColumn = 1
            AND VLT.ID <> @FilterValue THEN 1               

          -- Name column filter
          WHEN @FilterType = 'Contain' AND @FilterColumn = 2
            AND ( -- In this case, when the filter value is empty, we want to show everything.
                VLT.Name LIKE '%' + @FilterValue + '%'
               OR
                @FilterValue = ''
               ) THEN 1
          WHEN @FilterType = 'NotContain' AND @FilterColumn = 2
            AND ( -- In this case, when the filter value is empty, we want to show everything.
                VLT.Name NOT LIKE '%' + @FilterValue + '%'
               OR
                @FilterValue = ''
               ) THEN 1
          WHEN @FilterType = 'Match' AND @FilterColumn = 2
            AND VLT.Name = @FilterValue THEN 1
          WHEN @FilterType = 'NotMatch' AND @FilterColumn = 2
            AND VLT.Name <> @FilterValue THEN 1         

         -- Tel column filter   
         WHEN @FilterType = 'Contain' AND @FilterColumn = 3
            AND ( -- In this case, when the filter value is empty, we want to show everything.
                VLT.Tel LIKE '%' + @FilterValue + '%'
               OR
                @FilterValue = ''
               ) THEN 1
          WHEN @FilterType = 'NotContain' AND @FilterColumn = 3
            AND ( -- In this case, when the filter value is empty, we want to show everything.
                VLT.Tel NOT LIKE '%' + @FilterValue + '%'
               OR
                @FilterValue = ''
               ) THEN 1
          WHEN @FilterType = 'Match' AND @FilterColumn = 3
            AND VLT.Tel = @FilterValue THEN 1
          WHEN @FilterType = 'NotMatch' AND @FilterColumn = 3
            AND VLT.Tel <> @FilterValue THEN 1    

        END
      ) = 1     
  )

SELECT 
  Data.ID,
  Data.Name,
  Data.Tel
FROM Data_CTE AS Data
WHERE Data.RowNum > @PageSize * (@PageNumber - 1)
  AND Data.RowNum <= @PageSize * @PageNumber
ORDER BY Data.RowNum

- SQL Server 2012+

DECLARE @PageNumber Int = 1200
DECLARE @PageSize INT = 200
DECLARE @SortByField int = 1 --The field used for sort by
DECLARE @SortOrder nvarchar(255) = 'ASC' --ASC or DESC
DECLARE @FilterType nvarchar(255) = 'None' --The filter type, as defined on the client side (None/Contain/NotContain/Match/NotMatch/True/False/)
DECLARE @FilterValue nvarchar(255) = '' --The value the user gave for the filter
DECLARE @FilterColumn int = 1 --The column to wich the filter is applied, represents the column number like when we send the information.

;WITH
  Data_CTE
  AS
  (  
    SELECT 
      *  
    FROM VLT
    WHERE
      ( -- We apply the filter logic here
        CASE
          WHEN @FilterType = 'None' THEN 1

          -- Name column filter
          WHEN @FilterType = 'Contain' AND @FilterColumn = 1
            AND ( -- In this case, when the filter value is empty, we want to show everything.
                VLT.ID LIKE '%' + @FilterValue + '%'
               OR
                @FilterValue = ''
               ) THEN 1
          WHEN @FilterType = 'NotContain' AND @FilterColumn = 1
            AND ( -- In this case, when the filter value is empty, we want to show everything.
                VLT.ID NOT LIKE '%' + @FilterValue + '%'
               OR
                @FilterValue = ''
               ) THEN 1
          WHEN @FilterType = 'Match' AND @FilterColumn = 1
            AND VLT.ID = @FilterValue THEN 1
          WHEN @FilterType = 'NotMatch' AND @FilterColumn = 1
            AND VLT.ID <> @FilterValue THEN 1               

          -- Name column filter
          WHEN @FilterType = 'Contain' AND @FilterColumn = 2
            AND ( -- In this case, when the filter value is empty, we want to show everything.
                VLT.Name LIKE '%' + @FilterValue + '%'
               OR
                @FilterValue = ''
               ) THEN 1
          WHEN @FilterType = 'NotContain' AND @FilterColumn = 2
            AND ( -- In this case, when the filter value is empty, we want to show everything.
                VLT.Name NOT LIKE '%' + @FilterValue + '%'
               OR
                @FilterValue = ''
               ) THEN 1
          WHEN @FilterType = 'Match' AND @FilterColumn = 2
            AND VLT.Name = @FilterValue THEN 1
          WHEN @FilterType = 'NotMatch' AND @FilterColumn = 2
            AND VLT.Name <> @FilterValue THEN 1         

         -- Tel column filter   
         WHEN @FilterType = 'Contain' AND @FilterColumn = 3
            AND ( -- In this case, when the filter value is empty, we want to show everything.
                VLT.Tel LIKE '%' + @FilterValue + '%'
               OR
                @FilterValue = ''
               ) THEN 1
          WHEN @FilterType = 'NotContain' AND @FilterColumn = 3
            AND ( -- In this case, when the filter value is empty, we want to show everything.
                VLT.Tel NOT LIKE '%' + @FilterValue + '%'
               OR
                @FilterValue = ''
               ) THEN 1
          WHEN @FilterType = 'Match' AND @FilterColumn = 3
            AND VLT.Tel = @FilterValue THEN 1
          WHEN @FilterType = 'NotMatch' AND @FilterColumn = 3
            AND VLT.Tel <> @FilterValue THEN 1    

        END
      ) = 1         
  )

SELECT 
  Data.ID,
  Data.Name,
  Data.Tel
FROM Data_CTE AS Data
ORDER BY 
    CASE WHEN @SortByField = 1 AND @SortOrder = 'ASC'
        THEN Data.ID END ASC,
    CASE WHEN @SortByField = 1 AND @SortOrder = 'DESC'
        THEN Data.ID END DESC,
    CASE WHEN @SortByField = 2 AND @SortOrder = 'ASC'
        THEN Data.Name END ASC,
    CASE WHEN @SortByField = 2 AND @SortOrder = 'DESC'
        THEN Data.Name END ASC,
    CASE WHEN @SortByField = 3 AND @SortOrder = 'ASC'
        THEN Data.Tel END ASC,
    CASE WHEN @SortByField = 3 AND @SortOrder = 'DESC'
        THEN Data.Tel END ASC
OFFSET @PageSize * (@PageNumber - 1) ROWS FETCH NEXT @PageSize ROWS ONLY;

那么我在我的SQL 2000数据库中使用了下面的示例查询,它对SQL 2005也很好。 它给你的力量是通过使用多列动态排序的。 我告诉你...这是强大的:)

    ALTER PROCEDURE [dbo].[RE_ListingReports_SelectSummary] 

@CompanyID  int,
@pageNumber     int,
@pageSize   int, 
@sort       varchar(200)
AS

DECLARE @sql nvarchar(4000)
DECLARE @strPageSize nvarchar(20)
DECLARE @strSkippedRows nvarchar(20)
DECLARE @strFields nvarchar(4000)
DECLARE @strFilter nvarchar(4000)
DECLARE @sortBy nvarchar(4000)
DECLARE @strFrom nvarchar(4000)
DECLARE @strID nvarchar(100)

If(@pageNumber < 0)
  SET @pageNumber = 1
SET @strPageSize = CAST(@pageSize AS varchar(20)) 
SET @strSkippedRows = CAST(((@pageNumber - 1) * @pageSize) AS varchar(20))-- For    example if pageNumber is 5  pageSize is 10, then SkippedRows = 40.
SET @strID = 'ListingDbID'
SET @strFields = 'ListingDbID,
ListingID,  
[ExtraRoom]
'
SET @strFrom = ' vwListingSummary '

SET @strFilter = ' WHERE
        CompanyID = ' + CAST(@CompanyID As varchar(20)) 
End
SET @sortBy = ''
if(len(ltrim(rtrim(@sort))) > 0)
SET @sortBy = ' Order By ' + @sort

-- Total Rows Count

SET @sql =  'SELECT Count(' + @strID + ')  FROM ' + @strFROM + @strFilter
EXEC sp_executesql @sql

--// This technique is used in a Single Table pagination
SET @sql = 'SELECT ' + @strFields + ' FROM ' + @strFROM +
    ' WHERE ' + @strID +  ' IN ' + 
   '  (SELECT TOP ' + @strPageSize + ' ' + @strID + ' FROM ' + @strFROM + @strFilter + 
             ' AND  ' + @strID + ' NOT IN ' + '
          (SELECT TOP ' + @strSkippedRows + ' ' + @strID + ' FROM ' + @strFROM + @strFilter + @SortBy + ') ' 
   + @SortBy + ') ' + @SortBy
Print @sql 
EXEC sp_executesql @sql

最好的部分是sp_executesql缓存稍后的调用,只要您传递相同的参数即生成相同的sql文本。







pagination