HTML5中的画布宽度和高度




html5手册 (3)

canvas DOM元素具有与height="…"width="…"属性对应的.height.width属性。 将它们设置为JavaScript代码中的数值来调整画布大小。 例如:

var canvas = document.getElementsByTagName('canvas')[0];
canvas.width  = 800;
canvas.height = 600;

请注意,这将清除画布,但您应该遵循ctx.clearRect( 0, 0, ctx.canvas.width, ctx.canvas.height); 来处理那些没有完全清除画布的浏览器。 您需要重新绘制大小更改后显示的任何内容。

还要注意,高度和宽度是用于绘制的逻辑画布尺寸,并且不同于 style.heightstyle.width CSS属性。 如果您未设置CSS属性,则画布的固有大小将用作其显示大小; 如果您设置了CSS属性,并且它们与画布尺寸不同,则您的内容将在浏览器中缩放。 例如:

// Make a canvas that has a blurry pixelated zoom-in
// with each canvas pixel drawn showing as roughly 2x2 on screen
canvas.width  = 400;
canvas.height = 300; 
canvas.style.width  = '800px';
canvas.style.height = '600px';

查看以4倍放大的画布的实例

var c = document.getElementsByTagName('canvas')[0];
var ctx = c.getContext('2d');
ctx.lineWidth   = 1;
ctx.strokeStyle = '#f00';
ctx.fillStyle   = '#eff';

ctx.fillRect(  10.5, 10.5, 20, 20 );
ctx.strokeRect( 10.5, 10.5, 20, 20 );
ctx.fillRect(   40, 10.5, 20, 20 );
ctx.strokeRect( 40, 10.5, 20, 20 );
ctx.fillRect(   70, 10, 20, 20 );
ctx.strokeRect( 70, 10, 20, 20 );

ctx.strokeStyle = '#fff';
ctx.strokeRect( 10.5, 10.5, 20, 20 );
ctx.strokeRect( 40, 10.5, 20, 20 );
ctx.strokeRect( 70, 10, 20, 20 );
body { background:#eee; margin:1em; text-align:center }
canvas { background:#fff; border:1px solid #ccc; width:400px; height:160px }
<canvas width="100" height="40"></canvas>
<p>Showing that re-drawing the same antialiased lines does not obliterate old antialiased lines.</p>

是否可以修复HTML5 canvas元素的宽度和高度?

通常的方法如下:

<canvas id="canvas" width="300" height="300"></canvas>

非常感谢你! 最后我解决了这个代码模糊的像素问题:

<canvas id="graph" width=326 height=240 style='width:326px;height:240px'></canvas>

加上'半像素'技巧来消除线条。


画布有两种尺寸,画布中的像素尺寸(它是backingstore或drawingBuffer)和显示尺寸。 像素数量使用画布属性设置。 在HTML中

<canvas width="400" height="300"></canvas>

或者在JavaScript中

someCanvasElement.width = 400;
someCanvasElement.height = 300;

独立于画布的CSS样式的宽度和高度

在CSS中

canvas {  /* or some other selector */
   width: 500px;
   height: 400px;
}

或者在JavaScript中

canvas.style.width = "500px";
canvas.style.height = "400px";

可以说最好的制作1x1像素的画布的方法是总是使用CSS来选择大小,然后编写一小段JavaScript来使像素数量与该大小匹配。

function resizeCanvasToDisplaySize(canvas) {
   // look up the size the canvas is being displayed
   const width = canvas.clientWidth;
   const height = canvas.clientHeight;

   // If it's resolution does not match change it
   if (canvas.width !== width || canvas.height !== height) {
     canvas.width = width;
     canvas.height = height;
     return true;
   }

   return false;
}

为什么这是最好的方式? 因为它在大多数情况下都可以使用,而无需更改任何代码。

这是一个完整的窗口画布:

const ctx = document.querySelector("#c").getContext("2d");

function render(time) {
  time *= 0.001;
  resizeCanvasToDisplaySize(ctx.canvas);
 
  ctx.fillStyle = "#DDE";
  ctx.fillRect(0, 0, ctx.canvas.width, ctx.canvas.height);
  ctx.save();
 
  const spacing = 64;
  const size = 48;
  const across = ctx.canvas.width / spacing + 1;
  const down = ctx.canvas.height / spacing + 1;
  const s = Math.sin(time);
  const c = Math.cos(time);
  for (let y = 0; y < down; ++y) {
    for (let x = 0; x < across; ++x) {
      ctx.setTransform(c, -s, s, c, x * spacing, y * spacing);
      ctx.strokeRect(-size / 2, -size / 2, size, size);
    }
  }
  
  ctx.restore();
  
  requestAnimationFrame(render);
}
requestAnimationFrame(render);

function resizeCanvasToDisplaySize(canvas) {
   // look up the size the canvas is being displayed
   const width = canvas.clientWidth;
   const height = canvas.clientHeight;

   // If it's resolution does not match change it
   if (canvas.width !== width || canvas.height !== height) {
     canvas.width = width;
     canvas.height = height;
     return true;
   }

   return false;
}
body { margin: 0; }
canvas { display: block; width: 100vw; height: 100vh; }
<canvas id="c"></canvas>

下面是一段作为浮动的画布

const ctx = document.querySelector("#c").getContext("2d");

function render(time) {
  time *= 0.001;
  resizeCanvasToDisplaySize(ctx.canvas);
 
  ctx.fillStyle = "#DDE";
  ctx.fillRect(0, 0, ctx.canvas.width, ctx.canvas.height);
  ctx.save();
 
  const spacing = 64;
  const size = 48;
  const across = ctx.canvas.width  / spacing + 1;
  const down   = ctx.canvas.height / spacing + 1;
  const s = Math.sin(time);
  const c = Math.cos(time);
  for (let y = 0; y <= down; ++y) {
    for (let x = 0; x <= across; ++x) {
      ctx.setTransform(c, -s, s, c, x * spacing, y * spacing);
      ctx.strokeRect(-size / 2, -size / 2, size, size);
    }
  }
  
  ctx.restore();
  
  requestAnimationFrame(render);
}
requestAnimationFrame(render);

function resizeCanvasToDisplaySize(canvas) {
   // look up the size the canvas is being displayed
   const width = canvas.clientWidth;
   const height = canvas.clientHeight;

   // If it's resolution does not match change it
   if (canvas.width !== width || canvas.height !== height) {
     canvas.width = width;
     canvas.height = height;
     return true;
   }

   return false;
}
span { 
   width: 250px; 
   height: 100px; 
   float: left; 
   padding: 1em 1em 1em 0;
   display: inline-block;
}
canvas {
   width: 100%;
   height: 100%;
}
<p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Praesent cursus venenatis metus. Mauris ac nibh at odio scelerisque scelerisque. Donec ut enim <span class="diagram"><canvas id="c"></canvas></span>
vel urna gravida imperdiet id ac odio. Aenean congue hendrerit eros id facilisis. In vitae leo ullamcorper, aliquet leo a, vehicula magna. Proin sollicitudin vestibulum aliquet. Sed et varius justo.
<br/><br/>
Quisque tempor metus in porttitor placerat. Nulla vehicula sem nec ipsum commodo, at tincidunt orci porttitor. Duis porttitor egestas dui eu viverra. Sed et ipsum eget odio pharetra semper. Integer tempor orci quam, eget aliquet velit consectetur sit amet. Maecenas maximus placerat arcu in varius. Morbi semper, quam a ullamcorper interdum, augue nisl sagittis urna, sed pharetra lectus ex nec elit. Nullam viverra lacinia tellus, bibendum maximus nisl dictum id. Phasellus mauris quam, rutrum ut congue non, hendrerit sollicitudin urna.
</p>

这是一个相当大的控制面板中的画布

const ctx = document.querySelector("#c").getContext("2d");

function render(time) {
  time *= 0.001;
  resizeCanvasToDisplaySize(ctx.canvas);

  ctx.fillStyle = "#DDE";
  ctx.fillRect(0, 0, ctx.canvas.width, ctx.canvas.height);
  ctx.save();
 
  const spacing = 64;
  const size = 48;
  const across = ctx.canvas.width / spacing + 1;
  const down = ctx.canvas.height / spacing + 1;
  const s = Math.sin(time);
  const c = Math.cos(time);
  for (let y = 0; y < down; ++y) {
    for (let x = 0; x < across; ++x) {
      ctx.setTransform(c, -s, s, c, x * spacing, y * spacing);
      ctx.strokeRect(-size / 2, -size / 2, size, size);
    }
  }
  
  ctx.restore();
  
  requestAnimationFrame(render);
}
requestAnimationFrame(render);

function resizeCanvasToDisplaySize(canvas) {
   // look up the size the canvas is being displayed
   const width = canvas.clientWidth;
   const height = canvas.clientHeight;

   // If it's resolution does not match change it
   if (canvas.width !== width || canvas.height !== height) {
     canvas.width = width;
     canvas.height = height;
     return true;
   }

   return false;
}

// ----- the code above related to the canvas does not change ----
// ---- the code below is related to the slider ----
const $ = document.querySelector.bind(document);
const left = $(".left");
const slider = $(".slider");
let dragging;
let lastX;
let startWidth;

slider.addEventListener('mousedown', e => {
 lastX = e.pageX;
 dragging = true;
});

window.addEventListener('mouseup', e => {
 dragging = false;
});

window.addEventListener('mousemove', e => {
  if (dragging) {
    const deltaX = e.pageX - lastX;
    left.style.width = left.clientWidth + deltaX + "px";
    lastX = e.pageX;
  }
});
body { 
  margin: 0;
}
.frame {
  display: flex;
  align-items: space-between;
  height: 100vh;
}
.left {
  width: 70%;
  left: 0;
  top: 0;
  right: 0;
  bottom: 0;
}  
canvas {
  width: 100%;
  height: 100%;
}
pre {
  padding: 1em;
}
.slider {
  width: 10px;
  background: #000;
}
.right {
  flex 1 1 auto;
}
<div class="frame">
  <div class="left">
     <canvas id="c"></canvas>
  </div>
  <div class="slider">
  
  </div>
  <div class="right">
     <pre>
* controls
* go 
* here

&lt;- drag this
     </pre>
  </div>
</div>

这是一个作为背景的画布

const ctx = document.querySelector("#c").getContext("2d");

function render(time) {
  time *= 0.001;
  resizeCanvasToDisplaySize(ctx.canvas);
 
  ctx.fillStyle = "#DDE";
  ctx.fillRect(0, 0, ctx.canvas.width, ctx.canvas.height);
  ctx.save();
 
  const spacing = 64;
  const size = 48;
  const across = ctx.canvas.width / spacing + 1;
  const down = ctx.canvas.height / spacing + 1;
  const s = Math.sin(time);
  const c = Math.cos(time);
  for (let y = 0; y < down; ++y) {
    for (let x = 0; x < across; ++x) {
      ctx.setTransform(c, -s, s, c, x * spacing, y * spacing);
      ctx.strokeRect(-size / 2, -size / 2, size, size);
    }
  }
  
  ctx.restore();
  
  requestAnimationFrame(render);
}
requestAnimationFrame(render);

function resizeCanvasToDisplaySize(canvas) {
   // look up the size the canvas is being displayed
   const width = canvas.clientWidth;
   const height = canvas.clientHeight;

   // If it's resolution does not match change it
   if (canvas.width !== width || canvas.height !== height) {
     canvas.width = width;
     canvas.height = height;
     return true;
   }

   return false;
}
body { margin: 0; }
canvas { 
  display: block; 
  width: 100vw; 
  height: 100vh;  
  position: fixed;
}
#content {
  position: absolute;
  margin: 0 1em;
  font-size: xx-large;
  font-family: sans-serif;
  font-weight: bold;
  text-shadow: 2px  2px 0 #FFF, 
              -2px -2px 0 #FFF,
              -2px  2px 0 #FFF,
               2px -2px 0 #FFF;
}
<canvas id="c"></canvas>
<div id="content">
<p>
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Praesent cursus venenatis metus. Mauris ac nibh at odio scelerisque scelerisque. Donec ut enim vel urna gravida imperdiet id ac odio. Aenean congue hendrerit eros id facilisis. In vitae leo ullamcorper, aliquet leo a, vehicula magna. Proin sollicitudin vestibulum aliquet. Sed et varius justo.
</p>
<p>
Quisque tempor metus in porttitor placerat. Nulla vehicula sem nec ipsum commodo, at tincidunt orci porttitor. Duis porttitor egestas dui eu viverra. Sed et ipsum eget odio pharetra semper. Integer tempor orci quam, eget aliquet velit consectetur sit amet. Maecenas maximus placerat arcu in varius. Morbi semper, quam a ullamcorper interdum, augue nisl sagittis urna, sed pharetra lectus ex nec elit. Nullam viverra lacinia tellus, bibendum maximus nisl dictum id. Phasellus mauris quam, rutrum ut congue non, hendrerit sollicitudin urna.
</p>
</div>

因为我没有设置属性,所以每个样本中唯一改变的就是CSS(就画布而言)

笔记:

  • 不要在画布元素上放置边框或填充。 计算大小以从元素的维数减去是很麻烦的






canvas