android - salesforce单元测试 test




单元测试Android片段 (3)

假设您有一个名为“MyFragmentActivity”的FragmentActivity类,其中使用FragmentTransaction添加了名为“MyFragment”的公共Fragment类。 只需创建一个'JUnit测试用例'类,在您的测试项目中扩展ActivityInstrumentationTestCase2。 然后只需调用getActivity()并访问MyFragment对象及其公共成员以编写测试用例。

请参阅下面的代码段:

// TARGET CLASS
public class MyFragmentActivity extends FragmentActivity {
    public MyFragment myFragment;

    @Override
    protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
        super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
        setContentView(R.layout.main);

        FragmentTransaction fragmentTransaction = getSupportFragmentManager().beginTransaction();
        myFragment = new MyFragment();
        fragmentTransaction.add(R.id.mainFragmentContainer, myFragment);
        fragmentTransaction.commit();
    }
}

// TEST CLASS
public class MyFragmentActivityTest extends android.test.ActivityInstrumentationTestCase2<MyFragmentActivity> {
    MyFragmentActivity myFragmentActivity;
    MyFragment myFragment;

    public MyFragmentActivityTest() {
        super(MyFragmentActivity.class);
    }

    @Override
    protected void setUp() throws Exception {
        super.setUp();
        myFragmentActivity = (MyFragmentActivity) getActivity();
        myFragment = myFragmentActivity.myFragment;
    }

    public void testPreConditions() {
        assertNotNull(myFragmentActivity);
        assertNotNull(myFragment);
    }

    public void testAnythingFromMyFragment() {
        // access any public members of myFragment to test
    }
}

我希望这有帮助。 如果你觉得这很有用,请接受我的回答。 谢谢。

https://code.i-harness.com

我想对Android Fragment类进行单元测试。

我可以使用AndroidTestCase设置测试,还是需要使用ApplicationTestCase?

有没有关于如何使用这两个TestCases的有用示例? 开发人员网站上的测试示例很少,似乎只关注测试活动。

我在其他地方找到的只是扩展AndroidTestCase类的例子,但是所有经过测试的都是将两个数字加在一起,或者如果使用了Context,它只是做一个简单的get并测试某些东西不是null!

据我了解,片段必须存在于活动中。 那么我可以创建一个模拟Activity,或者获取Application或Context来提供一个Activity,我可以在其中测试我的片段吗?

我是否需要创建自己的Activity然后使用ActivityUnitTestCase?

感谢你的协助。

崔佛


我很确定你可以做你所说的,创建一个模拟Activity并从那里测试片段。 您只需要在主项目中导出兼容性库,您就可以从测试项目中访问片段。 我将在这里创建一个示例项目并测试代码,并根据我发现的内容更新我的答案。

有关如何导出兼容性库的更多详细信息,请单击here


我正在努力解决同样的问题。 特别是,由于大多数代码示例已经过时+ Android Studio / SDK正在改进,因此旧答案有时不再相关。

首先,首先要做的是:您需要确定是否要使用Instrumental或简单的JUnit测试。

它们之间的差异由SD精美描述; 简而言之:JUnit测试更轻量级,不需要运行模拟器,仪器 - 为您提供最接近实际设备的可能体验(传感器,gps,与其他应用程序的交互等)。 另请阅读有关Android测试的更多信息。

1.片段的JUnit测试

比方说,你不需要繁重的仪器测试,简单的junit测试就足够了。 Robolectric ,我使用了很好的框架Robolectric

在gradle中添加:

dependencies {
    .....
    testCompile 'junit:junit:4.12'
    testCompile 'org.robolectric:robolectric:3.0'
    testCompile "org.mockito:mockito-core:1.10.8"
    testCompile ('com.squareup.assertj:assertj-android:1.0.0') {
        exclude module: 'support-annotations'
    }
    .....
}

Mockito,AsserJ是可选的,但我发现它们非常有用,所以我强烈建议也包括它们。

然后在Build Variants中将Unit Tests指定为测试工件

现在是时候编写一些真正的测试了:-)例如,让我们采用标准的“Blank Activity with Fragment”示例项目。

我添加了一些代码行,实际上要测试一些东西:

import android.os.Bundle;
import android.support.v4.app.Fragment;
import android.view.LayoutInflater;
import android.view.View;
import android.view.ViewGroup;
import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.List;

public class MainActivityFragment extends Fragment {

    private List<Cow> cows;
    public MainActivityFragment() {}

    @Override
    public View onCreateView(LayoutInflater inflater, ViewGroup container,
                             Bundle savedInstanceState) {   
        cows = new ArrayList<>();
        cows.add(new Cow("Burka", 10));
        cows.add(new Cow("Zorka", 9));
        cows.add(new Cow("Kruzenshtern", 15));

        return inflater.inflate(R.layout.fragment_main, container, false);
    }

    int calculateYoungCows(int maxAge) {
        if (cows == null) {
            throw new IllegalStateException("onCreateView hasn't been called");
        }

        if (getActivity() == null) {
            throw new IllegalStateException("Activity is null");
        }

        if (getView() == null) {
            throw new IllegalStateException("View is null");
        }

        int result = 0;
        for (Cow cow : cows) {
            if (cow.age <= maxAge) {
                result++;
            }
        }

        return result;
    }
}

和班牛:

public class Cow {
    public String name;
    public int age;

    public Cow(String name, int age) {
        this.name = name;
        this.age = age;
    }
}

Robolectic的测试集看起来像:

import android.app.Application;
import android.support.v4.app.Fragment;
import android.support.v4.app.FragmentManager;
import android.support.v4.app.FragmentTransaction;
import android.test.ApplicationTestCase;

import junit.framework.Assert;

import org.junit.Before;
import org.junit.Test;
import org.junit.runner.RunWith;
import org.robolectric.Robolectric;
import org.robolectric.RobolectricGradleTestRunner;
import org.robolectric.annotation.Config;

import static org.assertj.core.api.Assertions.assertThat;
import static org.mockito.Mockito.mock;
import static org.mockito.Mockito.when;

@RunWith(RobolectricGradleTestRunner.class)
@Config(constants = BuildConfig.class, sdk=21)
public class MainActivityFragmentTest extends ApplicationTestCase<Application> {

    public MainActivityFragmentTest() {
        super(Application.class);
    }

    MainActivity mainActivity;
    MainActivityFragment mainActivityFragment;

    @Before
    public void setUp() {
        mainActivity = Robolectric.setupActivity(MainActivity.class);
        mainActivityFragment = new MainActivityFragment();
        startFragment(mainActivityFragment);
    }

    @Test
    public void testMainActivity() {
        Assert.assertNotNull(mainActivity);
    }

    @Test
    public void testCowsCounter() {
        assertThat(mainActivityFragment.calculateYoungCows(10)).isEqualTo(2);
        assertThat(mainActivityFragment.calculateYoungCows(99)).isEqualTo(3);
    }

    private void startFragment( Fragment fragment ) {
        FragmentManager fragmentManager = mainActivity.getSupportFragmentManager();
        FragmentTransaction fragmentTransaction = fragmentManager.beginTransaction();
        fragmentTransaction.add(fragment, null );
        fragmentTransaction.commit();
    }
}

即我们通过Robolectric.setupActivity创建活动,这是test-classes的setUp()中的新片段。 或者,您可以立即从setUp()启动片段,也可以直接从测试中完成。

NB! 我没有花太多时间在它上面,但看起来几乎不可能将它与Dagger绑在一起(我不知道Dagger2是否更容易),因为你不能用模拟注射设置自定义测试应用程序。

2.片段的仪器测试

这种方法的复杂性在很大程度上取决于您是否在要测试的应用程序中使用Dagger / Dependency注入。

Build Variants中,Android Instrumental Tests指定为测试工件

在Gradle中我添加了这些依赖项:

dependencies {
    .....
    androidTestCompile "com.google.dexmaker:dexmaker:1.1"
    androidTestCompile "com.google.dexmaker:dexmaker-mockito:1.1"
    androidTestCompile 'com.squareup.assertj:assertj-android:1.0.0'
    androidTestCompile "org.mockito:mockito-core:1.10.8"
    }
    .....
}

(再次,几乎所有这些都是可选的,但它们可以让你的生活变得如此简单)

- 如果你没有Dagger

这是一条快乐的道路。 与上述Robolectric的不同之处仅在于细节。

前置步骤1 :如果您要使用Mockito,则必须启用它才能在设备和模拟器上运行此hack:

public class TestUtils {
    private static final String CACHE_DIRECTORY = "/data/data/" + BuildConfig.APPLICATION_ID + "/cache";
    public static final String DEXMAKER_CACHE_PROPERTY = "dexmaker.dexcache";

    public static void enableMockitoOnDevicesAndEmulators() {
        if (System.getProperty(DEXMAKER_CACHE_PROPERTY) == null || System.getProperty(DEXMAKER_CACHE_PROPERTY).isEmpty()) {
            File file = new File(CACHE_DIRECTORY);
            if (!file.exists()) {
                final boolean success = file.mkdirs();
                if (!success) {
                    fail("Unable to create cache directory required for Mockito");
                }
            }

            System.setProperty(DEXMAKER_CACHE_PROPERTY, file.getPath());
        }
    }
}

如上所述,MainActivityFragment保持不变。 所以测试集看起来像:

package com.klogi.myapplication;

import android.support.v4.app.Fragment;
import android.support.v4.app.FragmentManager;
import android.support.v4.app.FragmentTransaction;
import android.test.ActivityInstrumentationTestCase2;

import junit.framework.Assert;

import static org.assertj.core.api.Assertions.assertThat;
import static org.mockito.Mockito.mock;
import static org.mockito.Mockito.when;

public class MainActivityFragmentTest extends ActivityInstrumentationTestCase2<MainActivity> {

    public MainActivityFragmentTest() {
        super(MainActivity.class);
    }

    MainActivity mainActivity;
    MainActivityFragment mainActivityFragment;

    @Override
    protected void setUp() throws Exception {
        TestUtils.enableMockitoOnDevicesAndEmulators();
        mainActivity = getActivity();
        mainActivityFragment = new MainActivityFragment();
    }

    public void testMainActivity() {
        Assert.assertNotNull(mainActivity);
    }

    public void testCowsCounter() {
        startFragment(mainActivityFragment);
        assertThat(mainActivityFragment.calculateYoungCows(10)).isEqualTo(2);
        assertThat(mainActivityFragment.calculateYoungCows(99)).isEqualTo(3);
    }

    private void startFragment( Fragment fragment ) {
        FragmentManager fragmentManager = mainActivity.getSupportFragmentManager();
        FragmentTransaction fragmentTransaction = fragmentManager.beginTransaction();
        fragmentTransaction.add(fragment, null);
        fragmentTransaction.commit();

        getActivity().runOnUiThread(new Runnable() {
            @Override
            public void run() {
                getActivity().getSupportFragmentManager().executePendingTransactions();
            }
        });

        getInstrumentation().waitForIdleSync();
    }

}

如您所见,Test类是ActivityInstrumentationTestCase2类的扩展。 此外,注意startFragment方法非常重要,与JUnit示例相比,该方法发生了变化:默认情况下,测试未在UI线程上运行,我们需要显式调用执行挂起的FragmentManager事务。

- 如果你有匕首

事情变得越来越严重:-)

首先,我们摆脱了ActivityInstrumentationTestCase2 ,转而使用ActivityUnitTestCase类,作为所有片段测试类的基类。

像往常一样,它不是那么简单,有几个陷阱( this是一个例子)。 所以我们需要将我们的AcitivityUnitTestCase pimp到ActivityUnitTestCaseOverride

在这里完全发布它有点太长了,所以我将它的完整版本上传到github ;

public abstract class ActivityUnitTestCaseOverride<T extends Activity>
        extends ActivityUnitTestCase<T> {

    ........
    private Class<T> mActivityClass;

    private Context mActivityContext;
    private Application mApplication;
    private MockParent mMockParent;

    private boolean mAttached = false;
    private boolean mCreated = false;

    public ActivityUnitTestCaseOverride(Class<T> activityClass) {
        super(activityClass);
        mActivityClass = activityClass;
    }

    @Override
    public T getActivity() {
        return (T) super.getActivity();
    }

    @Override
    protected void setUp() throws Exception {
        super.setUp();

        // default value for target context, as a default
        mActivityContext = getInstrumentation().getTargetContext();
    }

    /**
     * Start the activity under test, in the same way as if it was started by
     * {@link android.content.Context#startActivity Context.startActivity()}, providing the
     * arguments it supplied.  When you use this method to start the activity, it will automatically
     * be stopped by {@link #tearDown}.
     * <p/>
     * <p>This method will call onCreate(), but if you wish to further exercise Activity life
     * cycle methods, you must call them yourself from your test case.
     * <p/>
     * <p><i>Do not call from your setUp() method.  You must call this method from each of your
     * test methods.</i>
     *
     * @param intent                       The Intent as if supplied to {@link android.content.Context#startActivity}.
     * @param savedInstanceState           The instance state, if you are simulating this part of the life
     *                                     cycle.  Typically null.
     * @param lastNonConfigurationInstance This Object will be available to the
     *                                     Activity if it calls {@link android.app.Activity#getLastNonConfigurationInstance()}.
     *                                     Typically null.
     * @return Returns the Activity that was created
     */
    protected T startActivity(Intent intent, Bundle savedInstanceState,
                              Object lastNonConfigurationInstance) {
        assertFalse("Activity already created", mCreated);

        if (!mAttached) {
            assertNotNull(mActivityClass);
            setActivity(null);
            T newActivity = null;
            try {
                IBinder token = null;
                if (mApplication == null) {
                    setApplication(new MockApplication());
                }
                ComponentName cn = new ComponentName(getInstrumentation().getTargetContext(), mActivityClass.getName());
                intent.setComponent(cn);
                ActivityInfo info = new ActivityInfo();
                CharSequence title = mActivityClass.getName();
                mMockParent = new MockParent();
                String id = null;

                newActivity = (T) getInstrumentation().newActivity(mActivityClass, mActivityContext,
                        token, mApplication, intent, info, title, mMockParent, id,
                        lastNonConfigurationInstance);
            } catch (Exception e) {
                assertNotNull(newActivity);
            }

            assertNotNull(newActivity);
            setActivity(newActivity);

            mAttached = true;
        }

        T result = getActivity();
        if (result != null) {
            getInstrumentation().callActivityOnCreate(getActivity(), savedInstanceState);
            mCreated = true;
        }
        return result;
    }

    protected Class<T> getActivityClass() {
        return mActivityClass;
    }

    @Override
    protected void tearDown() throws Exception {

        setActivity(null);

        // Scrub out members - protects against memory leaks in the case where someone
        // creates a non-static inner class (thus referencing the test case) and gives it to
        // someone else to hold onto
        scrubClass(ActivityInstrumentationTestCase.class);

        super.tearDown();
    }

    /**
     * Set the application for use during the test.  You must call this function before calling
     * {@link #startActivity}.  If your test does not call this method,
     *
     * @param application The Application object that will be injected into the Activity under test.
     */
    public void setApplication(Application application) {
        mApplication = application;
    }
    .......
}

为所有片段测试创建一个抽象的AbstractFragmentTest:

import android.app.Activity;
import android.content.Intent;
import android.content.pm.ActivityInfo;
import android.content.res.Configuration;
import android.support.v4.app.Fragment;
import android.support.v4.app.FragmentManager;
import android.support.v4.app.FragmentTransaction;

/**
 * Common base class for {@link Fragment} tests.
 */
public abstract class AbstractFragmentTest<TFragment extends Fragment, TActivity extends FragmentActivity> extends ActivityUnitTestCaseOverride<TActivity> {

    private TFragment fragment;
    protected MockInjectionRegistration mocks;

    protected AbstractFragmentTest(TFragment fragment, Class<TActivity> activityType) {
        super(activityType);
        this.fragment = parameterIsNotNull(fragment);
    }

    @Override
    protected void setActivity(Activity testActivity) {
        if (testActivity != null) {
            testActivity.setTheme(R.style.AppCompatTheme);
        }

        super.setActivity(testActivity);
    }

    /**
     * Get the {@link Fragment} under test.
     */
    protected TFragment getFragment() {
        return fragment;
    }

    protected void setUpActivityAndFragment() {
        createMockApplication();

        final Intent intent = new Intent(getInstrumentation().getTargetContext(),
                getActivityClass());
        startActivity(intent, null, null);
        startFragment(getFragment());

        getInstrumentation().callActivityOnStart(getActivity());
        getInstrumentation().callActivityOnResume(getActivity());
    }

    private void createMockApplication() {
        TestUtils.enableMockitoOnDevicesAndEmulators();

        mocks = new MockInjectionRegistration();
        TestApplication testApplication = new TestApplication(getInstrumentation().getTargetContext());
        testApplication.setModules(mocks);
        testApplication.onCreate();
        setApplication(testApplication);
    }

    private void startFragment(Fragment fragment) {
        FragmentManager fragmentManager = getActivity().getSupportFragmentManager();
        FragmentTransaction fragmentTransaction = fragmentManager.beginTransaction();
        fragmentTransaction.add(fragment, null);
        fragmentTransaction.commit();
    }
}

这里有几件重要的事情。

1)我们覆盖setActivity()方法以将AppCompact主题设置为活动。 没有它,测试服将崩溃。

2) setUpActivityAndFragment()方法:

I.创建活动(=> getActivity()开始返回非空值,在测试和正在测试的应用程序中)1)onCreate()被调用的活动;

2)onStart()被调用的活动;

3)onResume()被调用的活动;

II。 附加并开始片段到活动

1)onAttach()称为片段;

2)onCreateView()的片段调用;

3)onStart()的片段调用;

4)调用片段的onResume();

3) createMockApplication()方法:与非匕首版本一样,在Pre-step 1中,我们在设备和模拟器上启用模拟。

然后我们使用我们的自定义TestApplication将其注入替换为普通应用程序!

MockInjectionRegistration看起来像:

....
import javax.inject.Singleton;

import dagger.Module;
import dagger.Provides;
import de.greenrobot.event.EventBus;

import static org.mockito.Mockito.mock;
import static org.mockito.Mockito.when;

@Module(
        injects = {

                ....
                MainActivity.class,
                MyWorkFragment.class,
                HomeFragment.class,
                ProfileFragment.class,
                ....
        },
        addsTo = DelveMobileInjectionRegistration.class,
        overrides = true
)
public final class MockInjectionRegistration {

    .....
    public DataSource dataSource;
    public EventBus eventBus;
    public MixpanelAPI mixpanel;
    .....

    public MockInjectionRegistration() {
        .....
        dataSource = mock(DataSource.class);
        eventBus = mock(EventBus.class);
        mixpanel = mock(MixpanelAPI.class);
        MixpanelAPI.People mixpanelPeople = mock(MixpanelAPI.People.class);
        when(mixpanel.getPeople()).thenReturn(mixpanelPeople);
        .....
    }
...........
    @Provides
    @Singleton
    @SuppressWarnings("unused")
        // invoked by Dagger
    DataSource provideDataSource() {
        Guard.valueIsNotNull(dataSource);
        return dataSource;
    }

    @Provides
    @Singleton
    @SuppressWarnings("unused")
        // invoked by Dagger
    EventBus provideEventBus() {
        Guard.valueIsNotNull(eventBus);
        return eventBus;
    }

    @Provides
    @Singleton
    @SuppressWarnings("unused")
        // invoked by Dagger
    MixpanelAPI provideMixpanelAPI() {
        Guard.valueIsNotNull(mixpanel);
        return mixpanel;
    }
.........
}

即不是真正的类,我们向片段提供他们的模拟版本。 (这很容易跟踪,允许配置方法调用的结果等)。

TestApplication只是Application的自定义扩展,应支持设置模块并初始化ObjectGraph。

这些是开始编写测试的前期步骤:)现在简单的部分,真正的测试:

public class SearchFragmentTest extends AbstractFragmentTest<SearchFragment, MainActivity> {

    public SearchFragmentTest() {
        super(new SearchFragment(), MainActivity.class);
    }

    @UiThreadTest
    public void testOnCreateView() throws Exception {
        setUpActivityAndFragment();

        SearchFragment searchFragment = getFragment();
        assertNotNull(searchFragment.adapter);
        assertNotNull(SearchFragment.getSearchAdapter());
        assertNotNull(SearchFragment.getSearchSignalLogger());
    }

    @UiThreadTest
    public void testOnPause() throws Exception {
        setUpActivityAndFragment();

        SearchFragment searchFragment = getFragment();
        assertTrue(Strings.isNullOrEmpty(SharedPreferencesTools.getString(getActivity(), SearchFragment.SEARCH_STATE_BUNDLE_ARGUMENT)));

        searchFragment.searchBoxRef.setCurrentConstraint("abs");
        searchFragment.onPause();

        assertEquals(searchFragment.searchBoxRef.getCurrentConstraint(), SharedPreferencesTools.getString(getActivity(), SearchFragment.SEARCH_STATE_BUNDLE_ARGUMENT));
    }

    @UiThreadTest
    public void testOnQueryTextChange() throws Exception {
        setUpActivityAndFragment();
        reset(mocks.eventBus);

        getFragment().onQueryTextChange("Donald");
        Thread.sleep(300);

        // Should be one cached, one uncached event
        verify(mocks.eventBus, times(2)).post(isA(SearchRequest.class));
        verify(mocks.eventBus).post(isA(SearchLoadingIndicatorEvent.class));
    }

    @UiThreadTest
    public void testOnQueryUpdateEventWithDifferentConstraint() throws Exception {
        setUpActivityAndFragment();

        reset(mocks.eventBus);

        getFragment().onEventMainThread(new SearchResponse(new ArrayList<>(), "Donald", false));

        verifyNoMoreInteractions(mocks.eventBus);
    }
    ....
}

而已! 现在,您已为Fragments启用了Instrumental / JUnit测试。

我真诚地希望这篇文章可以帮到某些人。





activityunittestcase