c# - 表达式树 - lambda expression python




从lambda表达式中检索属性名称 (12)

通过lambda表达式传入时是否有更好的方法来获取属性名称? 这是我目前拥有的。

例如。

GetSortingInfo<User>(u => u.UserId);

只有当属性是一个字符串时,它才会将它作为一个元素表达式进行处理。 因为不是所有的属性都是字符串,我不得不使用对象,但它会返回一个一元表达式。

public static RouteValueDictionary GetInfo<T>(this HtmlHelper html, 
    Expression<Func<T, object>> action) where T : class
{
    var expression = GetMemberInfo(action);
    string name = expression.Member.Name;

    return GetInfo(html, name);
}

private static MemberExpression GetMemberInfo(Expression method)
{
    LambdaExpression lambda = method as LambdaExpression;
    if (lambda == null)
        throw new ArgumentNullException("method");

    MemberExpression memberExpr = null;

    if (lambda.Body.NodeType == ExpressionType.Convert)
    {
        memberExpr = 
            ((UnaryExpression)lambda.Body).Operand as MemberExpression;
    }
    else if (lambda.Body.NodeType == ExpressionType.MemberAccess)
    {
        memberExpr = lambda.Body as MemberExpression;
    }

    if (memberExpr == null)
        throw new ArgumentException("method");

    return memberExpr;
}

Array.Length有一个边界案例。 虽然“长度”作为属性公开,但不能将其用于以前提出的任何解决方案中。

using Contract = System.Diagnostics.Contracts.Contract;
using Exprs = System.Linq.Expressions;

static string PropertyNameFromMemberExpr(Exprs.MemberExpression expr)
{
    return expr.Member.Name;
}

static string PropertyNameFromUnaryExpr(Exprs.UnaryExpression expr)
{
    if (expr.NodeType == Exprs.ExpressionType.ArrayLength)
        return "Length";

    var mem_expr = expr.Operand as Exprs.MemberExpression;

    return PropertyNameFromMemberExpr(mem_expr);
}

static string PropertyNameFromLambdaExpr(Exprs.LambdaExpression expr)
{
         if (expr.Body is Exprs.MemberExpression)   return PropertyNameFromMemberExpr(expr.Body as Exprs.MemberExpression);
    else if (expr.Body is Exprs.UnaryExpression)    return PropertyNameFromUnaryExpr(expr.Body as Exprs.UnaryExpression);

    throw new NotSupportedException();
}

public static string PropertyNameFromExpr<TProp>(Exprs.Expression<Func<TProp>> expr)
{
    Contract.Requires<ArgumentNullException>(expr != null);
    Contract.Requires<ArgumentException>(expr.Body is Exprs.MemberExpression || expr.Body is Exprs.UnaryExpression);

    return PropertyNameFromLambdaExpr(expr);
}

public static string PropertyNameFromExpr<T, TProp>(Exprs.Expression<Func<T, TProp>> expr)
{
    Contract.Requires<ArgumentNullException>(expr != null);
    Contract.Requires<ArgumentException>(expr.Body is Exprs.MemberExpression || expr.Body is Exprs.UnaryExpression);

    return PropertyNameFromLambdaExpr(expr);
}

现在示例用法:

int[] someArray = new int[1];
Console.WriteLine(PropertyNameFromExpr( () => someArray.Length ));

如果PropertyNameFromUnaryExpr未检查ArrayLengthArrayLength “someArray”打印到控制台(编译器似乎生成直接访问背景长度字段 ,作为优化,即使在调试中,因此也是特例)。


从.NET 4.0开始,您可以使用ExpressionVisitor来查找属性:

class ExprVisitor : ExpressionVisitor {
    public bool IsFound { get; private set; }
    public string MemberName { get; private set; }
    public Type MemberType { get; private set; }
    protected override Expression VisitMember(MemberExpression node) {
        if (!IsFound && node.Member.MemberType == MemberTypes.Property) {
            IsFound = true;
            MemberName = node.Member.Name;
            MemberType = node.Type;
        }
        return base.VisitMember(node);
    }
}

这里是你如何使用这个访问者:

var visitor = new ExprVisitor();
visitor.Visit(expr);
if (visitor.IsFound) {
    Console.WriteLine("First property in the expression tree: Name={0}, Type={1}", visitor.MemberName, visitor.MemberType.FullName);
} else {
    Console.WriteLine("No properties found.");
}

如果你想获得多个字段,我离开这个函数:

/// <summary>
    /// Get properties separated by , (Ex: to invoke 'd => new { d.FirstName, d.LastName }')
    /// </summary>
    /// <typeparam name="T"></typeparam>
    /// <param name="exp"></param>
    /// <returns></returns>
    public static string GetFields<T>(Expression<Func<T, object>> exp)
    {
        MemberExpression body = exp.Body as MemberExpression;
        var fields = new List<string>();
        if (body == null)
        {
            NewExpression ubody = exp.Body as NewExpression;
            if (ubody != null)
                foreach (var arg in ubody.Arguments)
                {
                    fields.Add((arg as MemberExpression).Member.Name);
                }
        }

        return string.Join(",", fields);
    }

我使用C#6之前项目的扩展方法,以及针对C#6目标的nameof

public static class MiscExtentions
{
    public static string NameOf<TModel, TProperty>(this object @object, Expression<Func<TModel, TProperty>> propertyExpression)
    {
        var expression = propertyExpression.Body as MemberExpression;
        if (expression == null)
        {
            throw new ArgumentException("Expression is not a property.");
        }

        return expression.Member.Name;
    }
}

我称之为:

public class MyClass 
{
    public int Property1 { get; set; }
    public string Property2 { get; set; }
    public int[] Property3 { get; set; }
    public Subclass Property4 { get; set; }
    public Subclass[] Property5 { get; set; }
}

public class Subclass
{
    public int PropertyA { get; set; }
    public string PropertyB { get; set; }
}

// result is Property1
this.NameOf((MyClass o) => o.Property1);
// result is Property2
this.NameOf((MyClass o) => o.Property2);
// result is Property3
this.NameOf((MyClass o) => o.Property3);
// result is Property4
this.NameOf((MyClass o) => o.Property4);
// result is PropertyB
this.NameOf((MyClass o) => o.Property4.PropertyB);
// result is Property5
this.NameOf((MyClass o) => o.Property5);

它适用于字段和属性。


我发现另一种可以做到的方式是强制类型化源和属性,并明确推断lambda的输入。 不知道这是否是正确的术语,但这是结果。

public static RouteValueDictionary GetInfo<T,P>(this HtmlHelper html, Expression<Func<T, P>> action) where T : class
{
    var expression = (MemberExpression)action.Body;
    string name = expression.Member.Name;

    return GetInfo(html, name);
}

然后像这样称呼它。

GetInfo((User u) => u.UserId);

并说它有效。
谢谢大家。


我在ObjectStateEntry上创建了一个扩展方法,以便以类型安全的方式修改属性(实体框架POCO类的属性),因为默认方法只接受一个字符串。 这是我从物业获取名称的方式:

public static void SetModifiedProperty<T>(this System.Data.Objects.ObjectStateEntry state, Expression<Func<T>> action)
{
    var body = (MemberExpression)action.Body;
    string propertyName = body.Member.Name;

    state.SetModifiedProperty(propertyName);
}

我已经更新了@ Cameron的答案 ,包括对Convert类型的lambda表达式进行一些安全检查:

PropertyInfo GetPropertyName<TSource, TProperty>(
Expression<Func<TSource, TProperty>> propertyLambda)
{
  var body = propertyLambda.Body;
  if (!(body is MemberExpression member)
    && !(body is UnaryExpression unary
      && (member = unary.Operand as MemberExpression) != null))
    throw new ArgumentException($"Expression '{propertyLambda}' " +
      "does not refer to a property.");

  if (!(member.Member is PropertyInfo propInfo))
    throw new ArgumentException($"Expression '{propertyLambda}' " +
      "refers to a field, not a property.");

  var type = typeof(TSource);
  if (!propInfo.DeclaringType.GetTypeInfo().IsAssignableFrom(type.GetTypeInfo()))
    throw new ArgumentException($"Expresion '{propertyLambda}' " + 
      "refers to a property that is not from type '{type}'.");

  return propInfo;
}

我最近做了一个非常类似的事情来创建一个类型安全的OnPropertyChanged方法。

这是一个将返回表达式的PropertyInfo对象的方法。 如果表达式不是属性,则会引发异常。

public PropertyInfo GetPropertyInfo<TSource, TProperty>(
    TSource source,
    Expression<Func<TSource, TProperty>> propertyLambda)
{
    Type type = typeof(TSource);

    MemberExpression member = propertyLambda.Body as MemberExpression;
    if (member == null)
        throw new ArgumentException(string.Format(
            "Expression '{0}' refers to a method, not a property.",
            propertyLambda.ToString()));

    PropertyInfo propInfo = member.Member as PropertyInfo;
    if (propInfo == null)
        throw new ArgumentException(string.Format(
            "Expression '{0}' refers to a field, not a property.",
            propertyLambda.ToString()));

    if (type != propInfo.ReflectedType &&
        !type.IsSubclassOf(propInfo.ReflectedType))
        throw new ArgumentException(string.Format(
            "Expression '{0}' refers to a property that is not from type {1}.",
            propertyLambda.ToString(),
            type));

    return propInfo;
}

source参数被使用,所以编译器可以对方法调用进行类型推断。 您可以执行以下操作

var propertyInfo = GetPropertyInfo(someUserObject, u => u.UserID);


这是一个通用实现,用于获取struct / class / interface / delegate / array的字段/属性/索引器/方法/扩展方法/委托的字符串名称。 我已经测试了静态/实例和非泛型/通用变体的组合。

//involves recursion
public static string GetMemberName(this LambdaExpression memberSelector)
{
    Func<Expression, string> nameSelector = null;  //recursive func
    nameSelector = e => //or move the entire thing to a separate recursive method
    {
        switch (e.NodeType)
        {
            case ExpressionType.Parameter:
                return ((ParameterExpression)e).Name;
            case ExpressionType.MemberAccess:
                return ((MemberExpression)e).Member.Name;
            case ExpressionType.Call:
                return ((MethodCallExpression)e).Method.Name;
            case ExpressionType.Convert:
            case ExpressionType.ConvertChecked:
                return nameSelector(((UnaryExpression)e).Operand);
            case ExpressionType.Invoke:
                return nameSelector(((InvocationExpression)e).Expression);
            case ExpressionType.ArrayLength:
                return "Length";
            default:
                throw new Exception("not a proper member selector");
        }
    };

    return nameSelector(memberSelector.Body);
}

这件事可以写在一个简单的while循环中:

//iteration based
public static string GetMemberName(this LambdaExpression memberSelector)
{
    var currentExpression = memberSelector.Body;

    while (true)
    {
        switch (currentExpression.NodeType)
        {
            case ExpressionType.Parameter:
                return ((ParameterExpression)currentExpression).Name;
            case ExpressionType.MemberAccess:
                return ((MemberExpression)currentExpression).Member.Name;
            case ExpressionType.Call:
                return ((MethodCallExpression)currentExpression).Method.Name;
            case ExpressionType.Convert:
            case ExpressionType.ConvertChecked:
                currentExpression = ((UnaryExpression)currentExpression).Operand;
                break;
            case ExpressionType.Invoke:
                currentExpression = ((InvocationExpression)currentExpression).Expression;
                break;
            case ExpressionType.ArrayLength:
                return "Length";
            default:
                throw new Exception("not a proper member selector");
        }
    }
}

我喜欢递归方法,尽管第二个方法可能更易于阅读。 人们可以这样称呼它:

someExpr = x => x.Property.ExtensionMethod()[0]; //or
someExpr = x => Static.Method().Field; //or
someExpr = x => VoidMethod(); //or
someExpr = () => localVariable; //or
someExpr = x => x; //or
someExpr = x => (Type)x; //or
someExpr = () => Array[0].Delegate(null); //etc

string name = someExpr.GetMemberName();

打印最后一个成员。

注意:

  1. 如果是ABC等链式表达式,则返回“C”。

  2. 这不适用于const ,数组索引器或enum (不可能涵盖所有情况)。


这是另一种基于此答案获取PropertyInfo的方法。 它消除了对象实例的需要。

/// <summary>
/// Get metadata of property referenced by expression. Type constrained.
/// </summary>
public static PropertyInfo GetPropertyInfo<TSource, TProperty>(Expression<Func<TSource, TProperty>> propertyLambda)
{
    return GetPropertyInfo((LambdaExpression) propertyLambda);
}

/// <summary>
/// Get metadata of property referenced by expression.
/// </summary>
public static PropertyInfo GetPropertyInfo(LambdaExpression propertyLambda)
{
    // https://.com/questions/671968/retrieving-property-name-from-lambda-expression
    MemberExpression member = propertyLambda.Body as MemberExpression;
    if (member == null)
        throw new ArgumentException(string.Format(
            "Expression '{0}' refers to a method, not a property.",
            propertyLambda.ToString()));

    PropertyInfo propInfo = member.Member as PropertyInfo;
    if (propInfo == null)
        throw new ArgumentException(string.Format(
            "Expression '{0}' refers to a field, not a property.",
            propertyLambda.ToString()));

    if(propertyLambda.Parameters.Count() == 0)
        throw new ArgumentException(String.Format(
            "Expression '{0}' does not have any parameters. A property expression needs to have at least 1 parameter.",
            propertyLambda.ToString()));

    var type = propertyLambda.Parameters[0].Type;
    if (type != propInfo.ReflectedType &&
        !type.IsSubclassOf(propInfo.ReflectedType))
        throw new ArgumentException(String.Format(
            "Expression '{0}' refers to a property that is not from type {1}.",
            propertyLambda.ToString(),
            type));
    return propInfo;
}

它可以这样调用:

var propertyInfo = GetPropertyInfo((User u) => u.UserID);

那么,没有必要调用.Name.ToString() ,但大致就是这样,是的。 你可能需要考虑的唯一问题是x.Foo.Bar应该返回“Foo”,“Bar”还是一个异常 - 也就是说你是否需要迭代。

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