macro - preprocessor中文




為什麼C預處理器將單詞“linux”解釋為常量“1”? (4)

使用這個命令

gcc -dM -E - < /dev/null

得到這個

    #define _LP64 1
#define _STDC_PREDEF_H 1
#define __ATOMIC_ACQUIRE 2
#define __ATOMIC_ACQ_REL 4
#define __ATOMIC_CONSUME 1
#define __ATOMIC_HLE_ACQUIRE 65536
#define __ATOMIC_HLE_RELEASE 131072
#define __ATOMIC_RELAXED 0
#define __ATOMIC_RELEASE 3
#define __ATOMIC_SEQ_CST 5
#define __BIGGEST_ALIGNMENT__ 16
#define __BYTE_ORDER__ __ORDER_LITTLE_ENDIAN__
#define __CHAR16_TYPE__ short unsigned int
#define __CHAR32_TYPE__ unsigned int
#define __CHAR_BIT__ 8
#define __DBL_DECIMAL_DIG__ 17
#define __DBL_DENORM_MIN__ ((double)4.94065645841246544177e-324L)
#define __DBL_DIG__ 15
#define __DBL_EPSILON__ ((double)2.22044604925031308085e-16L)
#define __DBL_HAS_DENORM__ 1
#define __DBL_HAS_INFINITY__ 1
#define __DBL_HAS_QUIET_NAN__ 1
#define __DBL_MANT_DIG__ 53
#define __DBL_MAX_10_EXP__ 308
#define __DBL_MAX_EXP__ 1024
#define __DBL_MAX__ ((double)1.79769313486231570815e+308L)
#define __DBL_MIN_10_EXP__ (-307)
#define __DBL_MIN_EXP__ (-1021)
#define __DBL_MIN__ ((double)2.22507385850720138309e-308L)
#define __DEC128_EPSILON__ 1E-33DL
#define __DEC128_MANT_DIG__ 34
#define __DEC128_MAX_EXP__ 6145
#define __DEC128_MAX__ 9.999999999999999999999999999999999E6144DL
#define __DEC128_MIN_EXP__ (-6142)
#define __DEC128_MIN__ 1E-6143DL
#define __DEC128_SUBNORMAL_MIN__ 0.000000000000000000000000000000001E-6143DL
#define __DEC32_EPSILON__ 1E-6DF
#define __DEC32_MANT_DIG__ 7
#define __DEC32_MAX_EXP__ 97
#define __DEC32_MAX__ 9.999999E96DF
#define __DEC32_MIN_EXP__ (-94)
#define __DEC32_MIN__ 1E-95DF
#define __DEC32_SUBNORMAL_MIN__ 0.000001E-95DF
#define __DEC64_EPSILON__ 1E-15DD
#define __DEC64_MANT_DIG__ 16
#define __DEC64_MAX_EXP__ 385
#define __DEC64_MAX__ 9.999999999999999E384DD
#define __DEC64_MIN_EXP__ (-382)
#define __DEC64_MIN__ 1E-383DD
#define __DEC64_SUBNORMAL_MIN__ 0.000000000000001E-383DD
#define __DECIMAL_BID_FORMAT__ 1
#define __DECIMAL_DIG__ 21
#define __DEC_EVAL_METHOD__ 2
#define __ELF__ 1
#define __FINITE_MATH_ONLY__ 0
#define __FLOAT_WORD_ORDER__ __ORDER_LITTLE_ENDIAN__
#define __FLT_DECIMAL_DIG__ 9
#define __FLT_DENORM_MIN__ 1.40129846432481707092e-45F
#define __FLT_DIG__ 6
#define __FLT_EPSILON__ 1.19209289550781250000e-7F
#define __FLT_EVAL_METHOD__ 0
#define __FLT_HAS_DENORM__ 1
#define __FLT_HAS_INFINITY__ 1
#define __FLT_HAS_QUIET_NAN__ 1
#define __FLT_MANT_DIG__ 24
#define __FLT_MAX_10_EXP__ 38
#define __FLT_MAX_EXP__ 128
#define __FLT_MAX__ 3.40282346638528859812e+38F
#define __FLT_MIN_10_EXP__ (-37)
#define __FLT_MIN_EXP__ (-125)
#define __FLT_MIN__ 1.17549435082228750797e-38F
#define __FLT_RADIX__ 2
#define __FXSR__ 1
#define __GCC_ASM_FLAG_OUTPUTS__ 1
#define __GCC_ATOMIC_BOOL_LOCK_FREE 2
#define __GCC_ATOMIC_CHAR16_T_LOCK_FREE 2
#define __GCC_ATOMIC_CHAR32_T_LOCK_FREE 2
#define __GCC_ATOMIC_CHAR_LOCK_FREE 2
#define __GCC_ATOMIC_INT_LOCK_FREE 2
#define __GCC_ATOMIC_LLONG_LOCK_FREE 2
#define __GCC_ATOMIC_LONG_LOCK_FREE 2
#define __GCC_ATOMIC_POINTER_LOCK_FREE 2
#define __GCC_ATOMIC_SHORT_LOCK_FREE 2
#define __GCC_ATOMIC_TEST_AND_SET_TRUEVAL 1
#define __GCC_ATOMIC_WCHAR_T_LOCK_FREE 2
#define __GCC_HAVE_DWARF2_CFI_ASM 1
#define __GCC_HAVE_SYNC_COMPARE_AND_SWAP_1 1
#define __GCC_HAVE_SYNC_COMPARE_AND_SWAP_2 1
#define __GCC_HAVE_SYNC_COMPARE_AND_SWAP_4 1
#define __GCC_HAVE_SYNC_COMPARE_AND_SWAP_8 1
#define __GCC_IEC_559 2
#define __GCC_IEC_559_COMPLEX 2
#define __GNUC_MINOR__ 3
#define __GNUC_PATCHLEVEL__ 0
#define __GNUC_STDC_INLINE__ 1
#define __GNUC__ 6
#define __GXX_ABI_VERSION 1010
#define __INT16_C(c) c
#define __INT16_MAX__ 0x7fff
#define __INT16_TYPE__ short int
#define __INT32_C(c) c
#define __INT32_MAX__ 0x7fffffff
#define __INT32_TYPE__ int
#define __INT64_C(c) c ## L
#define __INT64_MAX__ 0x7fffffffffffffffL
#define __INT64_TYPE__ long int
#define __INT8_C(c) c
#define __INT8_MAX__ 0x7f
#define __INT8_TYPE__ signed char
#define __INTMAX_C(c) c ## L
#define __INTMAX_MAX__ 0x7fffffffffffffffL
#define __INTMAX_TYPE__ long int
#define __INTPTR_MAX__ 0x7fffffffffffffffL
#define __INTPTR_TYPE__ long int
#define __INT_FAST16_MAX__ 0x7fffffffffffffffL
#define __INT_FAST16_TYPE__ long int
#define __INT_FAST32_MAX__ 0x7fffffffffffffffL
#define __INT_FAST32_TYPE__ long int
#define __INT_FAST64_MAX__ 0x7fffffffffffffffL
#define __INT_FAST64_TYPE__ long int
#define __INT_FAST8_MAX__ 0x7f
#define __INT_FAST8_TYPE__ signed char
#define __INT_LEAST16_MAX__ 0x7fff
#define __INT_LEAST16_TYPE__ short int
#define __INT_LEAST32_MAX__ 0x7fffffff
#define __INT_LEAST32_TYPE__ int
#define __INT_LEAST64_MAX__ 0x7fffffffffffffffL
#define __INT_LEAST64_TYPE__ long int
#define __INT_LEAST8_MAX__ 0x7f
#define __INT_LEAST8_TYPE__ signed char
#define __INT_MAX__ 0x7fffffff
#define __LDBL_DENORM_MIN__ 3.64519953188247460253e-4951L
#define __LDBL_DIG__ 18
#define __LDBL_EPSILON__ 1.08420217248550443401e-19L
#define __LDBL_HAS_DENORM__ 1
#define __LDBL_HAS_INFINITY__ 1
#define __LDBL_HAS_QUIET_NAN__ 1
#define __LDBL_MANT_DIG__ 64
#define __LDBL_MAX_10_EXP__ 4932
#define __LDBL_MAX_EXP__ 16384
#define __LDBL_MAX__ 1.18973149535723176502e+4932L
#define __LDBL_MIN_10_EXP__ (-4931)
#define __LDBL_MIN_EXP__ (-16381)
#define __LDBL_MIN__ 3.36210314311209350626e-4932L
#define __LONG_LONG_MAX__ 0x7fffffffffffffffLL
#define __LONG_MAX__ 0x7fffffffffffffffL
#define __LP64__ 1
#define __MMX__ 1
#define __NO_INLINE__ 1
#define __ORDER_BIG_ENDIAN__ 4321
#define __ORDER_LITTLE_ENDIAN__ 1234
#define __ORDER_PDP_ENDIAN__ 3412
#define __PIC__ 2
#define __PIE__ 2
#define __PRAGMA_REDEFINE_EXTNAME 1
#define __PTRDIFF_MAX__ 0x7fffffffffffffffL
#define __PTRDIFF_TYPE__ long int
#define __REGISTER_PREFIX__ 
#define __SCHAR_MAX__ 0x7f
#define __SEG_FS 1
#define __SEG_GS 1
#define __SHRT_MAX__ 0x7fff
#define __SIG_ATOMIC_MAX__ 0x7fffffff
#define __SIG_ATOMIC_MIN__ (-__SIG_ATOMIC_MAX__ - 1)
#define __SIG_ATOMIC_TYPE__ int
#define __SIZEOF_DOUBLE__ 8
#define __SIZEOF_FLOAT128__ 16
#define __SIZEOF_FLOAT80__ 16
#define __SIZEOF_FLOAT__ 4
#define __SIZEOF_INT128__ 16
#define __SIZEOF_INT__ 4
#define __SIZEOF_LONG_DOUBLE__ 16
#define __SIZEOF_LONG_LONG__ 8
#define __SIZEOF_LONG__ 8
#define __SIZEOF_POINTER__ 8
#define __SIZEOF_PTRDIFF_T__ 8
#define __SIZEOF_SHORT__ 2
#define __SIZEOF_SIZE_T__ 8
#define __SIZEOF_WCHAR_T__ 4
#define __SIZEOF_WINT_T__ 4
#define __SIZE_MAX__ 0xffffffffffffffffUL
#define __SIZE_TYPE__ long unsigned int
#define __SSE2_MATH__ 1
#define __SSE2__ 1
#define __SSE_MATH__ 1
#define __SSE__ 1
#define __SSP_STRONG__ 3
#define __STDC_HOSTED__ 1
#define __STDC_IEC_559_COMPLEX__ 1
#define __STDC_IEC_559__ 1
#define __STDC_ISO_10646__ 201605L
#define __STDC_NO_THREADS__ 1
#define __STDC_UTF_16__ 1
#define __STDC_UTF_32__ 1
#define __STDC_VERSION__ 201112L
#define __STDC__ 1
#define __UINT16_C(c) c
#define __UINT16_MAX__ 0xffff
#define __UINT16_TYPE__ short unsigned int
#define __UINT32_C(c) c ## U
#define __UINT32_MAX__ 0xffffffffU
#define __UINT32_TYPE__ unsigned int
#define __UINT64_C(c) c ## UL
#define __UINT64_MAX__ 0xffffffffffffffffUL
#define __UINT64_TYPE__ long unsigned int
#define __UINT8_C(c) c
#define __UINT8_MAX__ 0xff
#define __UINT8_TYPE__ unsigned char
#define __UINTMAX_C(c) c ## UL
#define __UINTMAX_MAX__ 0xffffffffffffffffUL
#define __UINTMAX_TYPE__ long unsigned int
#define __UINTPTR_MAX__ 0xffffffffffffffffUL
#define __UINTPTR_TYPE__ long unsigned int
#define __UINT_FAST16_MAX__ 0xffffffffffffffffUL
#define __UINT_FAST16_TYPE__ long unsigned int
#define __UINT_FAST32_MAX__ 0xffffffffffffffffUL
#define __UINT_FAST32_TYPE__ long unsigned int
#define __UINT_FAST64_MAX__ 0xffffffffffffffffUL
#define __UINT_FAST64_TYPE__ long unsigned int
#define __UINT_FAST8_MAX__ 0xff
#define __UINT_FAST8_TYPE__ unsigned char
#define __UINT_LEAST16_MAX__ 0xffff
#define __UINT_LEAST16_TYPE__ short unsigned int
#define __UINT_LEAST32_MAX__ 0xffffffffU
#define __UINT_LEAST32_TYPE__ unsigned int
#define __UINT_LEAST64_MAX__ 0xffffffffffffffffUL
#define __UINT_LEAST64_TYPE__ long unsigned int
#define __UINT_LEAST8_MAX__ 0xff
#define __UINT_LEAST8_TYPE__ unsigned char
#define __USER_LABEL_PREFIX__ 
#define __VERSION__ "6.3.0 20170406"
#define __WCHAR_MAX__ 0x7fffffff
#define __WCHAR_MIN__ (-__WCHAR_MAX__ - 1)
#define __WCHAR_TYPE__ int
#define __WINT_MAX__ 0xffffffffU
#define __WINT_MIN__ 0U
#define __WINT_TYPE__ unsigned int
#define __amd64 1
#define __amd64__ 1
#define __code_model_small__ 1
#define __gnu_linux__ 1
#define __has_include(STR) __has_include__(STR)
#define __has_include_next(STR) __has_include_next__(STR)
#define __k8 1
#define __k8__ 1
#define __linux 1
#define __linux__ 1
#define __pic__ 2
#define __pie__ 2
#define __unix 1
#define __unix__ 1
#define __x86_64 1
#define __x86_64__ 1
#define linux 1
#define unix 1

為什麼GCC中的C預處理器將linux (小字母)這個詞解釋為常量1

test.c的:

#include <stdio.h>
int main(void)
{       
    int linux = 5;
    return 0;
}

$ gcc -E test.c結果(在預處理階段後停止):

....
int main(void)
{
    int 1 = 5;
    return 0;
}

當然,這會產生一個錯誤。

(順便說一下:stdio.h文件中沒有#define linux 。)


因為linux是在編譯器運行時編譯的內置宏,或者Linux編譯的(如果它是交叉編譯器的話)。

有很多這樣的預定義的宏。 使用GCC,您可以使用:

cp /dev/null emptyfile.c
gcc -E -dM emptyfile.c

獲取宏列表。 (我沒有設法說服GCC直接接受/dev/null ,但空文件似乎工作正常。)在Mac OS X 10.8.5上運行GCC 4.8.1時,我得到了輸出:

#define __DBL_MIN_EXP__ (-1021)
#define __UINT_LEAST16_MAX__ 65535
#define __ATOMIC_ACQUIRE 2
#define __FLT_MIN__ 1.17549435082228750797e-38F
#define __UINT_LEAST8_TYPE__ unsigned char
#define __INTMAX_C(c) c ## L
#define __CHAR_BIT__ 8
#define __UINT8_MAX__ 255
#define __WINT_MAX__ 2147483647
#define __ORDER_LITTLE_ENDIAN__ 1234
#define __SIZE_MAX__ 18446744073709551615UL
#define __WCHAR_MAX__ 2147483647
#define __GCC_HAVE_SYNC_COMPARE_AND_SWAP_1 1
#define __GCC_HAVE_SYNC_COMPARE_AND_SWAP_2 1
#define __GCC_HAVE_SYNC_COMPARE_AND_SWAP_4 1
#define __DBL_DENORM_MIN__ ((double)4.94065645841246544177e-324L)
#define __GCC_HAVE_SYNC_COMPARE_AND_SWAP_8 1
#define __GCC_ATOMIC_CHAR_LOCK_FREE 2
#define __FLT_EVAL_METHOD__ 0
#define __GCC_ATOMIC_CHAR32_T_LOCK_FREE 2
#define __x86_64 1
#define __UINT_FAST64_MAX__ 18446744073709551615ULL
#define __SIG_ATOMIC_TYPE__ int
#define __DBL_MIN_10_EXP__ (-307)
#define __FINITE_MATH_ONLY__ 0
#define __GNUC_PATCHLEVEL__ 1
#define __UINT_FAST8_MAX__ 255
#define __DEC64_MAX_EXP__ 385
#define __INT8_C(c) c
#define __UINT_LEAST64_MAX__ 18446744073709551615ULL
#define __SHRT_MAX__ 32767
#define __LDBL_MAX__ 1.18973149535723176502e+4932L
#define __UINT_LEAST8_MAX__ 255
#define __GCC_ATOMIC_BOOL_LOCK_FREE 2
#define __APPLE_CC__ 1
#define __UINTMAX_TYPE__ long unsigned int
#define __DEC32_EPSILON__ 1E-6DF
#define __UINT32_MAX__ 4294967295U
#define __LDBL_MAX_EXP__ 16384
#define __WINT_MIN__ (-__WINT_MAX__ - 1)
#define __SCHAR_MAX__ 127
#define __WCHAR_MIN__ (-__WCHAR_MAX__ - 1)
#define __INT64_C(c) c ## LL
#define __DBL_DIG__ 15
#define __GCC_ATOMIC_POINTER_LOCK_FREE 2
#define __SIZEOF_INT__ 4
#define __SIZEOF_POINTER__ 8
#define __USER_LABEL_PREFIX__ _
#define __STDC_HOSTED__ 1
#define __LDBL_HAS_INFINITY__ 1
#define __FLT_EPSILON__ 1.19209289550781250000e-7F
#define __LDBL_MIN__ 3.36210314311209350626e-4932L
#define __DEC32_MAX__ 9.999999E96DF
#define __strong 
#define __INT32_MAX__ 2147483647
#define __SIZEOF_LONG__ 8
#define __APPLE__ 1
#define __UINT16_C(c) c
#define __DECIMAL_DIG__ 21
#define __LDBL_HAS_QUIET_NAN__ 1
#define __DYNAMIC__ 1
#define __GNUC__ 4
#define __MMX__ 1
#define __FLT_HAS_DENORM__ 1
#define __SIZEOF_LONG_DOUBLE__ 16
#define __BIGGEST_ALIGNMENT__ 16
#define __DBL_MAX__ ((double)1.79769313486231570815e+308L)
#define __INT_FAST32_MAX__ 2147483647
#define __DBL_HAS_INFINITY__ 1
#define __DEC32_MIN_EXP__ (-94)
#define __INT_FAST16_TYPE__ short int
#define __LDBL_HAS_DENORM__ 1
#define __DEC128_MAX__ 9.999999999999999999999999999999999E6144DL
#define __INT_LEAST32_MAX__ 2147483647
#define __DEC32_MIN__ 1E-95DF
#define __weak 
#define __DBL_MAX_EXP__ 1024
#define __DEC128_EPSILON__ 1E-33DL
#define __SSE2_MATH__ 1
#define __ATOMIC_HLE_RELEASE 131072
#define __PTRDIFF_MAX__ 9223372036854775807L
#define __amd64 1
#define __tune_core2__ 1
#define __ATOMIC_HLE_ACQUIRE 65536
#define __LONG_LONG_MAX__ 9223372036854775807LL
#define __SIZEOF_SIZE_T__ 8
#define __SIZEOF_WINT_T__ 4
#define __GXX_ABI_VERSION 1002
#define __FLT_MIN_EXP__ (-125)
#define __INT_FAST64_TYPE__ long long int
#define __DBL_MIN__ ((double)2.22507385850720138309e-308L)
#define __LP64__ 1
#define __DEC128_MIN__ 1E-6143DL
#define __REGISTER_PREFIX__ 
#define __UINT16_MAX__ 65535
#define __DBL_HAS_DENORM__ 1
#define __UINT8_TYPE__ unsigned char
#define __NO_INLINE__ 1
#define __FLT_MANT_DIG__ 24
#define __VERSION__ "4.8.1"
#define __UINT64_C(c) c ## ULL
#define __GCC_ATOMIC_INT_LOCK_FREE 2
#define __FLOAT_WORD_ORDER__ __ORDER_LITTLE_ENDIAN__
#define __INT32_C(c) c
#define __DEC64_EPSILON__ 1E-15DD
#define __ORDER_PDP_ENDIAN__ 3412
#define __DEC128_MIN_EXP__ (-6142)
#define __INT_FAST32_TYPE__ int
#define __UINT_LEAST16_TYPE__ short unsigned int
#define __INT16_MAX__ 32767
#define __ENVIRONMENT_MAC_OS_X_VERSION_MIN_REQUIRED__ 1080
#define __SIZE_TYPE__ long unsigned int
#define __UINT64_MAX__ 18446744073709551615ULL
#define __INT8_TYPE__ signed char
#define __FLT_RADIX__ 2
#define __INT_LEAST16_TYPE__ short int
#define __LDBL_EPSILON__ 1.08420217248550443401e-19L
#define __UINTMAX_C(c) c ## UL
#define __SSE_MATH__ 1
#define __k8 1
#define __SIG_ATOMIC_MAX__ 2147483647
#define __GCC_ATOMIC_WCHAR_T_LOCK_FREE 2
#define __SIZEOF_PTRDIFF_T__ 8
#define __x86_64__ 1
#define __DEC32_SUBNORMAL_MIN__ 0.000001E-95DF
#define __INT_FAST16_MAX__ 32767
#define __UINT_FAST32_MAX__ 4294967295U
#define __UINT_LEAST64_TYPE__ long long unsigned int
#define __FLT_HAS_QUIET_NAN__ 1
#define __FLT_MAX_10_EXP__ 38
#define __LONG_MAX__ 9223372036854775807L
#define __DEC128_SUBNORMAL_MIN__ 0.000000000000000000000000000000001E-6143DL
#define __FLT_HAS_INFINITY__ 1
#define __UINT_FAST16_TYPE__ short unsigned int
#define __DEC64_MAX__ 9.999999999999999E384DD
#define __CHAR16_TYPE__ short unsigned int
#define __PRAGMA_REDEFINE_EXTNAME 1
#define __INT_LEAST16_MAX__ 32767
#define __DEC64_MANT_DIG__ 16
#define __INT64_MAX__ 9223372036854775807LL
#define __UINT_LEAST32_MAX__ 4294967295U
#define __GCC_ATOMIC_LONG_LOCK_FREE 2
#define __INT_LEAST64_TYPE__ long long int
#define __INT16_TYPE__ short int
#define __INT_LEAST8_TYPE__ signed char
#define __DEC32_MAX_EXP__ 97
#define __INT_FAST8_MAX__ 127
#define __INTPTR_MAX__ 9223372036854775807L
#define __LITTLE_ENDIAN__ 1
#define __SSE2__ 1
#define __LDBL_MANT_DIG__ 64
#define __CONSTANT_CFSTRINGS__ 1
#define __DBL_HAS_QUIET_NAN__ 1
#define __SIG_ATOMIC_MIN__ (-__SIG_ATOMIC_MAX__ - 1)
#define __code_model_small__ 1
#define __k8__ 1
#define __INTPTR_TYPE__ long int
#define __UINT16_TYPE__ short unsigned int
#define __WCHAR_TYPE__ int
#define __SIZEOF_FLOAT__ 4
#define __pic__ 2
#define __UINTPTR_MAX__ 18446744073709551615UL
#define __DEC64_MIN_EXP__ (-382)
#define __INT_FAST64_MAX__ 9223372036854775807LL
#define __GCC_ATOMIC_TEST_AND_SET_TRUEVAL 1
#define __FLT_DIG__ 6
#define __UINT_FAST64_TYPE__ long long unsigned int
#define __INT_MAX__ 2147483647
#define __MACH__ 1
#define __amd64__ 1
#define __INT64_TYPE__ long long int
#define __FLT_MAX_EXP__ 128
#define __ORDER_BIG_ENDIAN__ 4321
#define __DBL_MANT_DIG__ 53
#define __INT_LEAST64_MAX__ 9223372036854775807LL
#define __GCC_ATOMIC_CHAR16_T_LOCK_FREE 2
#define __DEC64_MIN__ 1E-383DD
#define __WINT_TYPE__ int
#define __UINT_LEAST32_TYPE__ unsigned int
#define __SIZEOF_SHORT__ 2
#define __SSE__ 1
#define __LDBL_MIN_EXP__ (-16381)
#define __INT_LEAST8_MAX__ 127
#define __SIZEOF_INT128__ 16
#define __LDBL_MAX_10_EXP__ 4932
#define __ATOMIC_RELAXED 0
#define __DBL_EPSILON__ ((double)2.22044604925031308085e-16L)
#define _LP64 1
#define __UINT8_C(c) c
#define __INT_LEAST32_TYPE__ int
#define __SIZEOF_WCHAR_T__ 4
#define __UINT64_TYPE__ long long unsigned int
#define __INT_FAST8_TYPE__ signed char
#define __DBL_DECIMAL_DIG__ 17
#define __FXSR__ 1
#define __DEC_EVAL_METHOD__ 2
#define __UINT32_C(c) c ## U
#define __INTMAX_MAX__ 9223372036854775807L
#define __BYTE_ORDER__ __ORDER_LITTLE_ENDIAN__
#define __FLT_DENORM_MIN__ 1.40129846432481707092e-45F
#define __INT8_MAX__ 127
#define __PIC__ 2
#define __UINT_FAST32_TYPE__ unsigned int
#define __CHAR32_TYPE__ unsigned int
#define __FLT_MAX__ 3.40282346638528859812e+38F
#define __INT32_TYPE__ int
#define __SIZEOF_DOUBLE__ 8
#define __FLT_MIN_10_EXP__ (-37)
#define __INTMAX_TYPE__ long int
#define __DEC128_MAX_EXP__ 6145
#define __ATOMIC_CONSUME 1
#define __GNUC_MINOR__ 8
#define __UINTMAX_MAX__ 18446744073709551615UL
#define __DEC32_MANT_DIG__ 7
#define __DBL_MAX_10_EXP__ 308
#define __LDBL_DENORM_MIN__ 3.64519953188247460253e-4951L
#define __INT16_C(c) c
#define __STDC__ 1
#define __PTRDIFF_TYPE__ long int
#define __ATOMIC_SEQ_CST 5
#define __UINT32_TYPE__ unsigned int
#define __UINTPTR_TYPE__ long unsigned int
#define __DEC64_SUBNORMAL_MIN__ 0.000000000000001E-383DD
#define __DEC128_MANT_DIG__ 34
#define __LDBL_MIN_10_EXP__ (-4931)
#define __SIZEOF_LONG_LONG__ 8
#define __GCC_ATOMIC_LLONG_LOCK_FREE 2
#define __LDBL_DIG__ 18
#define __FLT_DECIMAL_DIG__ 9
#define __UINT_FAST16_MAX__ 65535
#define __GNUC_GNU_INLINE__ 1
#define __GCC_ATOMIC_SHORT_LOCK_FREE 2
#define __SSE3__ 1
#define __UINT_FAST8_TYPE__ unsigned char
#define __ATOMIC_ACQ_REL 4
#define __ATOMIC_RELEASE 3

這是一個空文件的236宏。 當我將#include <stdio.h>添加到文件中時,定義的宏數量達到了505.這些宏包括各種平台識別宏。


info gcc (重點是我的):

-ansi

在C模式下,這相當於-std=c90 。 在C ++模式下,它相當於-std=c++98 。 這關閉了與ISO C90(編譯C代碼時)或標準C ++(編譯C ++代碼時)不兼容的GCC的某些功能,例如asmtypeof關鍵字以及預定義的宏,如'unix'和'vax '確定您正在使用的系統類型。 它也使不受歡迎和很少使用的ISO trigraph功能。 對於C編譯器來說,它禁止識別C ++風格//註釋以及inline關鍵字。

(它在示例中使用了vax而不是linux,因為寫入時它可能更受歡迎;-)。

基本思想是GCC只有在使用-ansi選項調用時才試圖完全符合ISO標準。


這似乎是一個(無證)“GNU擴展”:[ 更正 :我終於在文檔中發現了一個提及。 見下文。]

以下命令使用-dM選項來打印所有預處理器定義; 由於輸入“文件”是空的,它顯示了完全預定義的宏。 它在標準的ubuntu安裝上使用gcc-4.7.3運行。 您可以看到預處理器是標準感知的。 總共有243個宏, -std=gnu99和240, -std=c99 ; 我篩選了相關性的輸出。

$ cpp --std=c89 -dM < /dev/null | grep linux
#define __linux 1
#define __linux__ 1
#define __gnu_linux__ 1

$ cpp --std=gnu89 -dM < /dev/null | grep linux
#define __linux 1
#define __linux__ 1
#define __gnu_linux__ 1
#define linux 1

$ cpp --std=c99 -dM < /dev/null | grep linux
#define __linux 1
#define __linux__ 1
#define __gnu_linux__ 1

$ cpp --std=gnu99 -dM < /dev/null | grep linux
#define __linux 1
#define __linux__ 1
#define __gnu_linux__ 1
#define linux 1

“GNU標準”版本也是#define unix 。 (使用c11gnu11會產生相同的結果。)

我想他們有他們的理由,但在我看來,默認安裝gcc(用-std=gnu89編譯C代碼,除非另有說明)不符合規定,並且 - 在這個問題中 - 令人驚訝。 在一致性實現中不允許使用名稱不以下劃線開頭的宏來污染全局名稱空間。 (6.8.10p2:“任何其他預定義的宏名稱應以前導下劃線開頭,後跟大寫字母或第二個下劃線”,但如附錄J.5(可移植性問題)中所述,這些名稱通常是預定義的。)

當我最初編寫這個答案時,我無法在gcc中找到關於此問題的任何文檔,但我最終發現了它,而不是在C實現定義的行為中,也不在C擴展中,而是在cpp手冊的第3.7.3節中,它在這裡指出:

我們正在慢慢地逐步淘汰保留名稱空間之外的所有預定義宏。 你不應該在新的程序中使用它們...





c-preprocessor