c# - 從剪貼板複製到剪貼板會丟失圖像透明度



wpf bitmap (1)

默認情況下,Windows剪貼板不支持透明度,但您可以將多種類型的內容放在剪貼板上,以確保大多數應用程序在其中找到可以使用的某些類型。 可悲的是,最常見的類型(Windows本身似乎使用)是一個非常臟和不可靠的類型。 我 here 寫了一個很大的 咆哮 解釋。

我會假設你在繼續我的答案之前已經閱讀過,因為它包含了下一部分所需的背景信息。

現在,將圖像放在具有透明度支持的剪貼板上的最簡潔方法是PNG流,但它不能保證所有應用程序都可以粘貼它。 Gimp支持PNG粘貼,顯然新的MS Office程序也是如此,但谷歌Chrome不會,並且只接受我鏈接的答案中詳述的凌亂的DIB類型。 另一方面,Gimp不會接受DIB具有透明度,因為它的創建者實際上遵循格式的規範,並且意識到格式不可靠(正如我鏈接的那個問題所清楚地證明的那樣)。

由於DIB的混亂,遺憾的是,最好的辦法就是盡可能多地將它放在那裡,包括PNG,DIB和普通的Image。

PNG和DIB都以相同的方式放在剪貼板上:將它們作為 MemoryStream 放入 DataObject 中,然後在實際放入時為剪貼板提供“複製”指令。

大多數情況很簡單,但DIB更複雜一點。 請注意,以下部分包含對我自己的工具集的幾個引用。 BuildImage 可以 在這個答案 中找到,可以在 here 找到 ArrayUtils ,下面給出了 ArrayUtils

/// <summary>
/// Copies the given image to the clipboard as PNG, DIB and standard Bitmap format.
/// </summary>
/// <param name="image">Image to put on the clipboard.</param>
/// <param name="imageNoTr">Optional specifically nontransparent version of the image to put on the clipboard.</param>
/// <param name="data">Clipboard data object to put the image into. Might already contain other stuff. Leave null to create a new one.</param>
public static void SetClipboardImage(Bitmap image, Bitmap imageNoTr, DataObject data)
{
    Clipboard.Clear();
    if (data == null)
        data = new DataObject();
    if (imageNoTr == null)
        imageNoTr = image;
    using (MemoryStream pngMemStream = new MemoryStream())
    using (MemoryStream dibMemStream = new MemoryStream())
    {
        // As standard bitmap, without transparency support
        data.SetData(DataFormats.Bitmap, true, imageNoTr);
        // As PNG. Gimp will prefer this over the other two.
        image.Save(pngMemStream, ImageFormat.Png);
        data.SetData("PNG", false, pngMemStream);
        // As DIB. This is (wrongly) accepted as ARGB by many applications.
        Byte[] dibData = ConvertToDib(image);
        dibMemStream.Write(dibData, 0, dibData.Length);
        data.SetData(DataFormats.Dib, false, dibMemStream);
        // The 'copy=true' argument means the MemoryStreams can be safely disposed after the operation.
        Clipboard.SetDataObject(data, true);
    }
}

/// <summary>
/// Converts the image to Device Independent Bitmap format of type BITFIELDS.
/// This is (wrongly) accepted by many applications as containing transparency,
/// so I'm abusing it for that.
/// </summary>
/// <param name="image">Image to convert to DIB</param>
/// <returns>The image converted to DIB, in bytes.</returns>
public static Byte[] ConvertToDib(Image image)
{
    Byte[] bm32bData;
    Int32 width = image.Width;
    Int32 height = image.Height;
    // Ensure image is 32bppARGB by painting it on a new 32bppARGB image.
    using (Bitmap bm32b = new Bitmap(image.Width, image.Height, PixelFormat.Format32bppArgb))
    {
        using (Graphics gr = Graphics.FromImage(bm32b))
            gr.DrawImage(image, new Rectangle(0, 0, bm32b.Width, bm32b.Height));
        // Bitmap format has its lines reversed.
        bm32b.RotateFlip(RotateFlipType.Rotate180FlipX);
        Int32 stride;
        bm32bData = ImageUtils.GetImageData(bm32b, out stride);
    }
    // BITMAPINFOHEADER struct for DIB.
    Int32 hdrSize = 0x28;
    Byte[] fullImage = new Byte[hdrSize + 12 + bm32bData.Length];
    //Int32 biSize;
    ArrayUtils.WriteIntToByteArray(fullImage, 0x00, 4, true, (UInt32)hdrSize);
    //Int32 biWidth;
    ArrayUtils.WriteIntToByteArray(fullImage, 0x04, 4, true, (UInt32)width);
    //Int32 biHeight;
    ArrayUtils.WriteIntToByteArray(fullImage, 0x08, 4, true, (UInt32)height);
    //Int16 biPlanes;
    ArrayUtils.WriteIntToByteArray(fullImage, 0x0C, 2, true, 1);
    //Int16 biBitCount;
    ArrayUtils.WriteIntToByteArray(fullImage, 0x0E, 2, true, 32);
    //BITMAPCOMPRESSION biCompression = BITMAPCOMPRESSION.BITFIELDS;
    ArrayUtils.WriteIntToByteArray(fullImage, 0x10, 4, true, 3);
    //Int32 biSizeImage;
    ArrayUtils.WriteIntToByteArray(fullImage, 0x14, 4, true, (UInt32)bm32bData.Length);
    // These are all 0. Since .net clears new arrays, don't bother writing them.
    //Int32 biXPelsPerMeter = 0;
    //Int32 biYPelsPerMeter = 0;
    //Int32 biClrUsed = 0;
    //Int32 biClrImportant = 0;

    // The aforementioned "BITFIELDS": colour masks applied to the Int32 pixel value to get the R, G and B values.
    ArrayUtils.WriteIntToByteArray(fullImage, hdrSize + 0, 4, true, 0x00FF0000);
    ArrayUtils.WriteIntToByteArray(fullImage, hdrSize + 4, 4, true, 0x0000FF00);
    ArrayUtils.WriteIntToByteArray(fullImage, hdrSize + 8, 4, true, 0x000000FF);
    Array.Copy(bm32bData, 0, fullImage, hdrSize + 12, bm32bData.Length);
    return fullImage;
}

現在,至於從剪貼板上獲取圖像,我注意到.Net 3.5和後者之間的行為顯然存在差異,這似乎實際上使用了DIB。 鑑於這種差異,並且考慮到DIB格式的不可靠性,您需要手動檢查所有類型,最好從完全可靠的PNG格式開始。

您可以使用以下代碼從剪貼板獲取 DataObject

DataObject retrievedData = Clipboard.GetDataObject() as DataObject;

這裡使用的 CloneImage 函數基本上只是我的 BuildImageBuildImage 工具集的組合,確保創建一個新的映像,而不會有任何可能混亂的後備資源; 已知圖像對像在基於 Stream 然後被丟棄時會導致崩潰。 它的壓縮和優化版本發佈 在這裡, 這是 一個值得一讀的關於為什麼這個克隆如此重要的問題的問題。

/// <summary>
/// Retrieves an image from the given clipboard data object, in the order PNG, DIB, Bitmap, Image object.
/// </summary>
/// <param name="retrievedData">The clipboard data.</param>
/// <returns>The extracted image, or null if no supported image type was found.</returns>
public static Bitmap GetClipboardImage(DataObject retrievedData)
{
    Bitmap clipboardimage = null;
    // Order: try PNG, move on to try 32-bit ARGB DIB, then try the normal Bitmap and Image types.
    if (retrievedData.GetDataPresent("PNG"))
    {
        MemoryStream png_stream = retrievedData.GetData("PNG") as MemoryStream;
        if (png_stream != null)
            using (Bitmap bm = new Bitmap(png_stream))
                clipboardimage = ImageUtils.CloneImage(bm);
    }
    if (clipboardimage == null && retrievedData.GetDataPresent(DataFormats.Dib))
    {
        MemoryStream dib = retrievedData.GetData(DataFormats.Dib) as MemoryStream;
        if (dib != null)
            clipboardimage = ImageFromClipboardDib(dib.ToArray());
    }
    if (clipboardimage == null && retrievedData.GetDataPresent(DataFormats.Bitmap))
        clipboardimage = new Bitmap(retrievedData.GetData(DataFormats.Bitmap) as Image);
    if (clipboardimage == null && retrievedData.GetDataPresent(typeof(Image)))
        clipboardimage = new Bitmap(retrievedData.GetData(typeof(Image)) as Image);
    return clipboardimage;
}

public static Bitmap ImageFromClipboardDib(Byte[] dibBytes)
{
    if (dibBytes == null || dibBytes.Length < 4)
        return null;
    try
    {
        Int32 headerSize = (Int32)ArrayUtils.ReadIntFromByteArray(dibBytes, 0, 4, true);
        // Only supporting 40-byte DIB from clipboard
        if (headerSize != 40)
            return null;
        Byte[] header = new Byte[40];
        Array.Copy(dibBytes, header, 40);
        Int32 imageIndex = headerSize;
        Int32 width = (Int32)ArrayUtils.ReadIntFromByteArray(header, 0x04, 4, true);
        Int32 height = (Int32)ArrayUtils.ReadIntFromByteArray(header, 0x08, 4, true);
        Int16 planes = (Int16)ArrayUtils.ReadIntFromByteArray(header, 0x0C, 2, true);
        Int16 bitCount = (Int16)ArrayUtils.ReadIntFromByteArray(header, 0x0E, 2, true);
        //Compression: 0 = RGB; 3 = BITFIELDS.
        Int32 compression = (Int32)ArrayUtils.ReadIntFromByteArray(header, 0x10, 4, true);
        // Not dealing with non-standard formats.
        if (planes != 1 || (compression != 0 && compression != 3))
            return null;
        PixelFormat fmt;
        switch (bitCount)
        {
            case 32:
                fmt = PixelFormat.Format32bppRgb;
                break;
            case 24:
                fmt = PixelFormat.Format24bppRgb;
                break;
            case 16:
                fmt = PixelFormat.Format16bppRgb555;
                break;
            default:
                return null;
        }
        if (compression == 3)
            imageIndex += 12;
        if (dibBytes.Length < imageIndex)
            return null;
        Byte[] image = new Byte[dibBytes.Length - imageIndex];
        Array.Copy(dibBytes, imageIndex, image, 0, image.Length);
        // Classic stride: fit within blocks of 4 bytes.
        Int32 stride = (((((bitCount * width) + 7) / 8) + 3) / 4) * 4;
        if (compression == 3)
        {
            UInt32 redMask = ArrayUtils.ReadIntFromByteArray(dibBytes, headerSize + 0, 4, true);
            UInt32 greenMask = ArrayUtils.ReadIntFromByteArray(dibBytes, headerSize + 4, 4, true);
            UInt32 blueMask = ArrayUtils.ReadIntFromByteArray(dibBytes, headerSize + 8, 4, true);
            // Fix for the undocumented use of 32bppARGB disguised as BITFIELDS. Despite lacking an alpha bit field,
            // the alpha bytes are still filled in, without any header indication of alpha usage.
            // Pure 32-bit RGB: check if a switch to ARGB can be made by checking for non-zero alpha.
            // Admitted, this may give a mess if the alpha bits simply aren't cleared, but why the hell wouldn't it use 24bpp then?
            if (bitCount == 32 && redMask == 0xFF0000 && greenMask == 0x00FF00 && blueMask == 0x0000FF)
            {
                // Stride is always a multiple of 4; no need to take it into account for 32bpp.
                for (Int32 pix = 3; pix < image.Length; pix += 4)
                {
                    // 0 can mean transparent, but can also mean the alpha isn't filled in, so only check for non-zero alpha,
                    // which would indicate there is actual data in the alpha bytes.
                    if (image[pix] == 0)
                        continue;
                    fmt = PixelFormat.Format32bppPArgb;
                    break;
                }
            }
            else
                // Could be supported with a system that parses the colour masks,
                // but I don't think the clipboard ever uses these anyway.
                return null;
        }
        Bitmap bitmap = ImageUtils.BuildImage(image, width, height, stride, fmt, null, null);
        // This is bmp; reverse image lines.
        bitmap.RotateFlip(RotateFlipType.Rotate180FlipX);
        return bitmap;
    }
    catch
    {
        return null;
    }
}

因為 BitConverter 總是需要對系統字節序進行啞檢,所以我在 ArrayUtils 類中得到了自己的 ReadIntFromByteArrayWriteIntToByteArray

public static void WriteIntToByteArray(Byte[] data, Int32 startIndex, Int32 bytes, Boolean littleEndian, UInt32 value)
{
    Int32 lastByte = bytes - 1;
    if (data.Length < startIndex + bytes)
        throw new ArgumentOutOfRangeException("startIndex", "Data array is too small to write a " + bytes + "-byte value at offset " + startIndex + ".");
    for (Int32 index = 0; index < bytes; index++)
    {
        Int32 offs = startIndex + (littleEndian ? index : lastByte - index);
        data[offs] = (Byte)(value >> (8 * index) & 0xFF);
    }
}

public static UInt32 ReadIntFromByteArray(Byte[] data, Int32 startIndex, Int32 bytes, Boolean littleEndian)
{
    Int32 lastByte = bytes - 1;
    if (data.Length < startIndex + bytes)
        throw new ArgumentOutOfRangeException("startIndex", "Data array is too small to read a " + bytes + "-byte value at offset " + startIndex + ".");
    UInt32 value = 0;
    for (Int32 index = 0; index < bytes; index++)
    {
        Int32 offs = startIndex + (littleEndian ? index : lastByte - index);
        value += (UInt32)(data[offs] << (8 * index));
    }
    return value;
}

我一直在嘗試將透明的PNG圖像複製到剪貼板並 保留其透明度, 將其 粘貼到支持它的特定程序中。

我已經嘗試了很多解決方案,但背景總是以這種或那種方式變成灰色。

所以我嘗試使用Chrome複製相同的圖像並將其粘貼到程序中並且它有效。 它保持了透明度。 那麼我嘗試從剪貼板中獲取我使用Chrome複製的圖像並再次設置圖像,期望透明度仍然存在 - 但是,即使我剛從剪貼板中取出圖像並設置它,也不會保留透明度再次。

var img = Clipboard.GetImage(); // copied using Chrome and transparency is preserved
Clipboard.SetImage(img); // transparency lost

即使我使用 System.Windows.Forms.Clipboard 或嘗試獲取並設置 DataObject 而不是Image,也會出現同樣的問題。





clipboard