java - 為什麼在編譯時不檢查lambda返回類型




generics type-inference (3)

在第一個示例中, MyInterface::getLength"I am NOT an Integer" 幫助將通用參數 TR 解析為 MyInterface 以及 Serializable & Comparable<? extends Serializable & Comparable<?>> Serializable & Comparable<? extends Serializable & Comparable<?>>

// it compiles since String is a Serializable
Function<MyInterface, Serializable> function = MyInterface::getLength;
Builder.of(MyInterface.class).with(function, "I am NOT an Integer");

除非您明確聲明,否則 MyInterface::getLength 並不總是 Function<MyInterface, Integer> ,這將導致編譯時錯誤,如第二個示例所示。

// it doesn't compile since String isn't an Integer
Function<MyInterface, Integer> function = MyInterface::getLength;
Builder.of(MyInterface.class).with(function, "I am NOT an Integer");

使用的方法參考的返回類型為Integer。 但是在以下示例中,允許使用不兼容的String。 如何修復方法“ with”聲明,以確保方法引用類型安全而無需手動強制轉換?

import java.util.function.Function;

public class MinimalExample {
  static public class Builder<T> {
    final Class<T> clazz;

    Builder(Class<T> clazz) {
      this.clazz = clazz;
    }

    static <T> Builder<T> of(Class<T> clazz) {
      return new Builder<T>(clazz);
    }

    <R> Builder<T> with(Function<T, R> getter, R returnValue) {
      return null; //TODO
    }

  }

  static public interface MyInterface {
    Integer getLength();
  }

  public static void main(String[] args) {
// missing compiletimecheck is inaceptable:
    Builder.of(MyInterface.class).with(MyInterface::getLength, "I am NOT an Integer");

// compile time error OK: 
    Builder.of(MyInterface.class).with((Function<MyInterface, Integer> )MyInterface::getLength, "I am NOT an Integer");
// The method with(Function<MinimalExample.MyInterface,R>, R) in the type MinimalExample.Builder<MinimalExample.MyInterface> is not applicable for the arguments (Function<MinimalExample.MyInterface,Integer>, String)
  }

}

用例:類型安全但通用的Builder。

我嘗試實現沒有註釋處理(自動值)或編譯器插件(lombok)的通用生成器

import java.lang.reflect.Array;
import java.lang.reflect.InvocationHandler;
import java.lang.reflect.Method;
import java.lang.reflect.Proxy;
import java.util.HashMap;
import java.util.concurrent.atomic.AtomicReference;
import java.util.function.Function;

public class BuilderExample {
  static public class Builder<T> implements InvocationHandler {
    final Class<T> clazz;
    HashMap<Method, Object> methodReturnValues = new HashMap<>();

    Builder(Class<T> clazz) {
      this.clazz = clazz;
    }

    static <T> Builder<T> of(Class<T> clazz) {
      return new Builder<T>(clazz);
    }

    Builder<T> withMethod(Method method, Object returnValue) {
      Class<?> returnType = method.getReturnType();
      if (returnType.isPrimitive()) {
        if (returnValue == null) {
          throw new IllegalArgumentException("Primitive value cannot be null:" + method);
        } else {
          try {
            boolean isConvertable = getDefaultValue(returnType).getClass().isAssignableFrom(returnValue.getClass());
            if (!isConvertable) {
              throw new ClassCastException(returnValue.getClass() + " cannot be cast to " + returnType + " for " + method);
            }
          } catch (IllegalArgumentException | SecurityException e) {
            throw new RuntimeException(e);
          }
        }
      } else if (returnValue != null && !returnType.isAssignableFrom(returnValue.getClass())) {
        throw new ClassCastException(returnValue.getClass() + " cannot be cast to " + returnType + " for " + method);
      }
      Object previuos = methodReturnValues.put(method, returnValue);
      if (previuos != null) {
        throw new IllegalArgumentException("Value alread set for " + method);
      }
      return this;
    }

    static HashMap<Class, Object> defaultValues = new HashMap<>();

    private static <T> T getDefaultValue(Class<T> clazz) {
      if (clazz == null || !clazz.isPrimitive()) {
        return null;
      }
      @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
      T cachedDefaultValue = (T) defaultValues.get(clazz);
      if (cachedDefaultValue != null) {
        return cachedDefaultValue;
      }
      @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
      T defaultValue = (T) Array.get(Array.newInstance(clazz, 1), 0);
      defaultValues.put(clazz, defaultValue);
      return defaultValue;
    }

    public synchronized static <T> Method getMethod(Class<T> clazz, java.util.function.Function<T, ?> resolve) {
      AtomicReference<Method> methodReference = new AtomicReference<>();
      @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
      T proxy = (T) Proxy.newProxyInstance(clazz.getClassLoader(), new Class[] { clazz }, new InvocationHandler() {

        @Override
        public Object invoke(Object p, Method method, Object[] args) {

          Method oldMethod = methodReference.getAndSet(method);
          if (oldMethod != null) {
            throw new IllegalArgumentException("Method was already called " + oldMethod);
          }
          Class<?> returnType = method.getReturnType();
          return getDefaultValue(returnType);
        }
      });

      resolve.apply(proxy);
      Method method = methodReference.get();
      if (method == null) {
        throw new RuntimeException(new NoSuchMethodException());
      }
      return method;
    }

    // R will accep common type Object :-( // see https://stackoverflow.com/questions/58337639
    <R, V extends R> Builder<T> with(Function<T, R> getter, V returnValue) {
      Method method = getMethod(clazz, getter);
      return withMethod(method, returnValue);
    }

    //typesafe :-) but i dont want to avoid implementing all types
    Builder<T> withValue(Function<T, Long> getter, long returnValue) {
      return with(getter, returnValue);
    }

    Builder<T> withValue(Function<T, String> getter, String returnValue) {
      return with(getter, returnValue);
    }

    T build() {
      @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
      T proxy = (T) Proxy.newProxyInstance(clazz.getClassLoader(), new Class[] { clazz }, this);
      return proxy;
    }

    @Override
    public Object invoke(Object proxy, Method method, Object[] args) {
      Object returnValue = methodReturnValues.get(method);
      if (returnValue == null) {
        Class<?> returnType = method.getReturnType();
        return getDefaultValue(returnType);
      }
      return returnValue;
    }
  }

  static public interface MyInterface {
    String getName();

    long getLength();

    Long getNullLength();

    Long getFullLength();

    Number getNumber();
  }

  public static void main(String[] args) {
    MyInterface x = Builder.of(MyInterface.class).with(MyInterface::getName, "1").with(MyInterface::getLength, 1L).with(MyInterface::getNullLength, null).with(MyInterface::getFullLength, new Long(2)).with(MyInterface::getNumber, 3L).build();
    System.out.println("name:" + x.getName());
    System.out.println("length:" + x.getLength());
    System.out.println("nullLength:" + x.getNullLength());
    System.out.println("fullLength:" + x.getFullLength());
    System.out.println("number:" + x.getNumber());

    // java.lang.ClassCastException: class java.lang.String cannot be cast to long:
    // RuntimeException only :-(
    MyInterface y = Builder.of(MyInterface.class).with(MyInterface::getLength, "NOT A NUMBER").build();

    // java.lang.ClassCastException: java.lang.String cannot be cast to java.lang.Long
    // RuntimeException only :-(
    System.out.println("length:" + y.getLength());
  }

}

它在這裡發揮作用的類型推斷。 考慮方法簽名中的通用 R

<R> Builder<T> with(Function<T, R> getter, R returnValue)

在列出的情況下:

Builder.of(MyInterface.class).with(MyInterface::getLength, "I am NOT an Integer");

R 的類型被成功推斷為

Serializable, Comparable<? extends Serializable & Comparable<?>>

String 確實暗示了這種類型,因此編譯成功。

要明確指定 R 的類型並找出不兼容之處,只需將代碼行更改為:

Builder.of(MyInterface.class).<Integer>with(MyInterface::getLength, "not valid");

這是因為可以將您的通用類型參數 R 推斷為Object,即以下編譯:

Builder.of(MyInterface.class).with((Function<MyInterface, Object>) MyInterface::getLength, "I am NOT an Integer");




method-reference