stl教學 漂亮的C++ STL容器




stack c++ (6)

請注意這篇文章末尾的更新。

更新:我在這個庫GitHub創建了一個公共項目

我希望有一個單獨的模板,通過operator<< ,一勞永逸地處理所有STL容器。 在偽代碼中,我正在尋找像這樣的東西:

template<container C, class T, String delim = ", ", String open = "[", String close = "]">
std::ostream & operator<<(std::ostream & o, const C<T> & x)
{
    o << open;
    // for (typename C::const_iterator i = x.begin(); i != x.end(); i++) /* Old-school */
    for (auto i = x.begin(); i != x.end(); i++)
    {
        if (i != x.begin()) o << delim;
        o << *i;
    }
    o << close;
    return o;
}

現在我已經在這裡看到了很多模板魔法,我從來沒有想過可能,所以我想知道是否有人可以提出一些可以匹配所有容器的東西。也許有一些特徵可以確定是否有必要的迭代器?

非常感謝!

更新(和解決方案)

第9頻道再次提出這個問題後,我從Sven Groot那裡得到了一個很好的答案,它結合了一些SFINAE類型的traiting,似乎以一種完全一般的和可嵌套的方式解決了這個問題。 分隔符可以是單獨專用的,包括std :: set的示例專門化,以及使用自定義分隔符的示例。

助手“wrap_array()”可用於打印原始C數組。 更新:對和元組可用於打印; 默認分隔符是圓括號。

enable-if類型特徵需要C ++ 0x,但有一些修改後,應該可以創建C ++ 98版本。 元組需要可變參數模板,因此需要C ++ 0x。

我已經要求Sven在這裡發布解決方案,以便我可以接受它,但同時我想自己發布代碼以供參考。 ( 更新: Sven現在已經發布了他的代碼,我作出了接受的答案。我自己的代碼使用容器類型特徵,這對我很有用,但可能會導致非容器類提供迭代器的意外行為。)

標題(prettyprint.h):

#ifndef H_PRETTY_PRINT
#define H_PRETTY_PRINT


#include <type_traits>
#include <iostream>
#include <utility>
#include <tuple>


namespace std
{
    // Pre-declarations of container types so we don't actually have to include the relevant headers if not needed, speeding up compilation time.
    template<typename T, typename TTraits, typename TAllocator> class set;
}

namespace pretty_print
{

    // SFINAE type trait to detect a container based on whether T::const_iterator exists.
    // (Improvement idea: check also if begin()/end() exist.)

    template<typename T>
    struct is_container_helper
    {
    private:
        template<typename C> static char test(typename C::const_iterator*);
        template<typename C> static int  test(...);
    public:
        static const bool value = sizeof(test<T>(0)) == sizeof(char);
    };


    // Basic is_container template; specialize to derive from std::true_type for all desired container types

    template<typename T> struct is_container : public ::std::integral_constant<bool, is_container_helper<T>::value> { };


    // Holds the delimiter values for a specific character type

    template<typename TChar>
    struct delimiters_values
    {
        typedef TChar char_type;
        const TChar * prefix;
        const TChar * delimiter;
        const TChar * postfix;
    };


    // Defines the delimiter values for a specific container and character type

    template<typename T, typename TChar>
    struct delimiters
    {
        typedef delimiters_values<TChar> type;
        static const type values; 
    };


    // Default delimiters

    template<typename T> struct delimiters<T, char> { static const delimiters_values<char> values; };
    template<typename T> const delimiters_values<char> delimiters<T, char>::values = { "[", ", ", "]" };
    template<typename T> struct delimiters<T, wchar_t> { static const delimiters_values<wchar_t> values; };
    template<typename T> const delimiters_values<wchar_t> delimiters<T, wchar_t>::values = { L"[", L", ", L"]" };


    // Delimiters for set

    template<typename T, typename TTraits, typename TAllocator> struct delimiters< ::std::set<T, TTraits, TAllocator>, char> { static const delimiters_values<char> values; };
    template<typename T, typename TTraits, typename TAllocator> const delimiters_values<char> delimiters< ::std::set<T, TTraits, TAllocator>, char>::values = { "{", ", ", "}" };
    template<typename T, typename TTraits, typename TAllocator> struct delimiters< ::std::set<T, TTraits, TAllocator>, wchar_t> { static const delimiters_values<wchar_t> values; };
    template<typename T, typename TTraits, typename TAllocator> const delimiters_values<wchar_t> delimiters< ::std::set<T, TTraits, TAllocator>, wchar_t>::values = { L"{", L", ", L"}" };


    // Delimiters for pair (reused for tuple, see below)

    template<typename T1, typename T2> struct delimiters< ::std::pair<T1, T2>, char> { static const delimiters_values<char> values; };
    template<typename T1, typename T2> const delimiters_values<char> delimiters< ::std::pair<T1, T2>, char>::values = { "(", ", ", ")" };
    template<typename T1, typename T2> struct delimiters< ::std::pair<T1, T2>, wchar_t> { static const delimiters_values<wchar_t> values; };
    template<typename T1, typename T2> const delimiters_values<wchar_t> delimiters< ::std::pair<T1, T2>, wchar_t>::values = { L"(", L", ", L")" };


    // Functor to print containers. You can use this directly if you want to specificy a non-default delimiters type.

    template<typename T, typename TChar = char, typename TCharTraits = ::std::char_traits<TChar>, typename TDelimiters = delimiters<T, TChar>>
    struct print_container_helper
    {
        typedef TChar char_type;
        typedef TDelimiters delimiters_type;
        typedef std::basic_ostream<TChar, TCharTraits> & ostream_type;

        print_container_helper(const T & container)
        : _container(container)
        {
        }

        inline void operator()(ostream_type & stream) const
        {
            if (delimiters_type::values.prefix != NULL)
                stream << delimiters_type::values.prefix;

            for (typename T::const_iterator beg = _container.begin(), end = _container.end(), it = beg; it != end; ++it)
            {
                if (it != beg && delimiters_type::values.delimiter != NULL)
                    stream << delimiters_type::values.delimiter;

                stream << *it;
            }

            if (delimiters_type::values.postfix != NULL)
                stream << delimiters_type::values.postfix;
        }

    private:
        const T & _container;
    };


    // Type-erasing helper class for easy use of custom delimiters.
    // Requires TCharTraits = std::char_traits<TChar> and TChar = char or wchar_t, and MyDelims needs to be defined for TChar.
    // Usage: "cout << pretty_print::custom_delims<MyDelims>(x)".

    struct custom_delims_base
    {
        virtual ~custom_delims_base() { }
        virtual ::std::ostream & stream(::std::ostream &) = 0;
        virtual ::std::wostream & stream(::std::wostream &) = 0;
    };

    template <typename T, typename Delims>
    struct custom_delims_wrapper : public custom_delims_base
    {
        custom_delims_wrapper(const T & t) : t(t) { }

        ::std::ostream & stream(::std::ostream & stream)
        {
          return stream << ::pretty_print::print_container_helper<T, char, ::std::char_traits<char>, Delims>(t);
        }
        ::std::wostream & stream(::std::wostream & stream)
        {
          return stream << ::pretty_print::print_container_helper<T, wchar_t, ::std::char_traits<wchar_t>, Delims>(t);
        }

    private:
        const T & t;
    };

    template <typename Delims>
    struct custom_delims
    {
        template <typename Container> custom_delims(const Container & c) : base(new custom_delims_wrapper<Container, Delims>(c)) { }
        ~custom_delims() { delete base; }
        custom_delims_base * base;
    };

} // namespace pretty_print


template <typename TChar, typename TCharTraits, typename Delims>
inline std::basic_ostream<TChar, TCharTraits> & operator<<(std::basic_ostream<TChar, TCharTraits> & stream, const pretty_print::custom_delims<Delims> & p)
{
    return p.base->stream(stream);
}


// Template aliases for char and wchar_t delimiters
// Enable these if you have compiler support
//
// Implement as "template<T, C, A> const sdelims::type sdelims<std::set<T,C,A>>::values = { ... }."

//template<typename T> using pp_sdelims = pretty_print::delimiters<T, char>;
//template<typename T> using pp_wsdelims = pretty_print::delimiters<T, wchar_t>;


namespace std
{
    // Prints a print_container_helper to the specified stream.

    template<typename T, typename TChar, typename TCharTraits, typename TDelimiters>
    inline basic_ostream<TChar, TCharTraits> & operator<<(basic_ostream<TChar, TCharTraits> & stream,
                                                          const ::pretty_print::print_container_helper<T, TChar, TCharTraits, TDelimiters> & helper)
    {
        helper(stream);
        return stream;
    }

    // Prints a container to the stream using default delimiters

    template<typename T, typename TChar, typename TCharTraits>
    inline typename enable_if< ::pretty_print::is_container<T>::value, basic_ostream<TChar, TCharTraits>&>::type
    operator<<(basic_ostream<TChar, TCharTraits> & stream, const T & container)
    {
        return stream << ::pretty_print::print_container_helper<T, TChar, TCharTraits>(container);
    }

    // Prints a pair to the stream using delimiters from delimiters<std::pair<T1, T2>>.
    template<typename T1, typename T2, typename TChar, typename TCharTraits>
    inline basic_ostream<TChar, TCharTraits> & operator<<(basic_ostream<TChar, TCharTraits> & stream, const pair<T1, T2> & value)
    {
        if (::pretty_print::delimiters<pair<T1, T2>, TChar>::values.prefix != NULL)
            stream << ::pretty_print::delimiters<pair<T1, T2>, TChar>::values.prefix;

        stream << value.first;

        if (::pretty_print::delimiters<pair<T1, T2>, TChar>::values.delimiter != NULL)
            stream << ::pretty_print::delimiters<pair<T1, T2>, TChar>::values.delimiter;

        stream << value.second;

        if (::pretty_print::delimiters<pair<T1, T2>, TChar>::values.postfix != NULL)
            stream << ::pretty_print::delimiters<pair<T1, T2>, TChar>::values.postfix;

        return stream;
    }
} // namespace std

// Prints a tuple to the stream using delimiters from delimiters<std::pair<tuple_dummy_t, tuple_dummy_t>>.

namespace pretty_print
{
    struct tuple_dummy_t { }; // Just if you want special delimiters for tuples.

    typedef std::pair<tuple_dummy_t, tuple_dummy_t> tuple_dummy_pair;

    template<typename Tuple, size_t N, typename TChar, typename TCharTraits>
    struct pretty_tuple_helper
    {
        static inline void print(::std::basic_ostream<TChar, TCharTraits> & stream, const Tuple & value)
        {
            pretty_tuple_helper<Tuple, N - 1, TChar, TCharTraits>::print(stream, value);

            if (delimiters<tuple_dummy_pair, TChar>::values.delimiter != NULL)
                stream << delimiters<tuple_dummy_pair, TChar>::values.delimiter;

            stream << std::get<N - 1>(value);
        }
    };

    template<typename Tuple, typename TChar, typename TCharTraits>
    struct pretty_tuple_helper<Tuple, 1, TChar, TCharTraits>
    {
        static inline void print(::std::basic_ostream<TChar, TCharTraits> & stream, const Tuple & value) { stream << ::std::get<0>(value); }
    };
} // namespace pretty_print


namespace std
{
    template<typename TChar, typename TCharTraits, typename ...Args>
    inline basic_ostream<TChar, TCharTraits> & operator<<(basic_ostream<TChar, TCharTraits> & stream, const tuple<Args...> & value)
    {
        if (::pretty_print::delimiters< ::pretty_print::tuple_dummy_pair, TChar>::values.prefix != NULL)
            stream << ::pretty_print::delimiters< ::pretty_print::tuple_dummy_pair, TChar>::values.prefix;

        ::pretty_print::pretty_tuple_helper<const tuple<Args...> &, sizeof...(Args), TChar, TCharTraits>::print(stream, value);

        if (::pretty_print::delimiters< ::pretty_print::tuple_dummy_pair, TChar>::values.postfix != NULL)
            stream << ::pretty_print::delimiters< ::pretty_print::tuple_dummy_pair, TChar>::values.postfix;

        return stream;
    }
} // namespace std


// A wrapper for raw C-style arrays. Usage: int arr[] = { 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 };  std::cout << wrap_array(arr) << ...

namespace pretty_print
{
    template <typename T, size_t N>
    struct array_wrapper
    {
        typedef const T * const_iterator;
        typedef T value_type;

        array_wrapper(const T (& a)[N]) : _array(a) { }
        inline const_iterator begin() const { return _array; }
        inline const_iterator end() const { return _array + N; }

    private:
        const T * const _array;
    };
} // namespace pretty_print

template <typename T, size_t N>
inline pretty_print::array_wrapper<T, N> pretty_print_array(const T (& a)[N])
{
    return pretty_print::array_wrapper<T, N>(a);
}


#endif

用法示例:

#include <iostream>
#include <vector>
#include <unordered_map>
#include <map>
#include <set>
#include <array>
#include <tuple>
#include <utility>
#include <string>

#include "prettyprint.h"

// Specialization for a particular container
template<> const pretty_print::delimiters_values<char> pretty_print::delimiters<std::vector<double>, char>::values = { "|| ", " : ", " ||" };

// Custom delimiters for one-off use
struct MyDel { static const delimiters_values<char> values; };
const delimiters_values<char> MyDel::values = { "<", "; ", ">" };

int main(int argc, char * argv[])
{
  std::string cs;
  std::unordered_map<int, std::string> um;
  std::map<int, std::string> om;
  std::set<std::string> ss;
  std::vector<std::string> v;
  std::vector<std::vector<std::string>> vv;
  std::vector<std::pair<int, std::string>> vp;
  std::vector<double> vd;
  v.reserve(argc - 1);
  vv.reserve(argc - 1);
  vp.reserve(argc - 1);
  vd.reserve(argc - 1);

  std::cout << "Printing pairs." << std::endl;

  while (--argc)
  {
    std::string s(argv[argc]);
    std::pair<int, std::string> p(argc, s);

    um[argc] = s;
    om[argc] = s;
    v.push_back(s);
    vv.push_back(v);
    vp.push_back(p);
    vd.push_back(1./double(i));
    ss.insert(s);
    cs += s;

    std::cout << "  " << p << std::endl;
  }

  std::array<char, 5> a{{ 'h', 'e', 'l', 'l', 'o' }};

  std::cout << "Vector: " << v << std::endl
            << "Incremental vector: " << vv << std::endl
            << "Another vector: " << vd << std::endl
            << "Pairs: " << vp << std::endl
            << "Set: " << ss << std::endl
            << "OMap: " << om << std::endl
            << "UMap: " << um << std::endl
            << "String: " << cs << std::endl
            << "Array: " << a << std::endl
  ;

  // Using custom delimiters manually:
  std::cout << pretty_print::print_container_helper<std::vector<std::string>, char, std::char_traits<char>, MyDel>(v) << std::endl;

  // Using custom delimiters with the type-erasing helper class
  std::cout << pretty_print::custom_delims<MyDel>(v) << std::endl;

  // Pairs and tuples and arrays:
  auto a1 = std::make_pair(std::string("Jello"), 9);
  auto a2 = std::make_tuple(1729);
  auto a3 = std::make_tuple("Qrgh", a1, 11);
  auto a4 = std::make_tuple(1729, 2875, std::pair<double, std::string>(1.5, "meow"));
  int arr[] = { 1, 4, 9, 16 };

  std::cout << "C array: " << wrap_array(arr) << std::endl
            << "Pair: " << a1 << std::endl
            << "1-tuple: " << a2 << std::endl
            << "n-tuple: " << a3 << std::endl
            << "n-tuple: " << a4 << std::endl
  ;
}

進一步的改進想法:

  • 以同樣的方式實現std::tuple<...>輸出是我們用於std::pair<S,T> 更新:現在這是一個單獨的問題Upupdate:現在已經實現了,這要歸功於Xeo!
  • 添加名稱空間,以便幫助程序類不會流入全局名稱空間。 完成
  • 添加模板別名(或類似的東西)以方便製作自定義分隔符類,或者預處理器宏?

最近更新:

  • 我在打印函數中刪除了自定義輸出迭代器,以支持簡單的for循環。
  • 所有的實現細節現在都在pretty_print命名空間中。 只有全局流操作符和pretty_print_array包裝器位於全局命名空間中。
  • 修復了命名空間,使operator<<現在在std正確。

筆記:

  • 刪除輸出迭代器意味著沒有辦法使用std::copy()來獲得漂亮的打印效果。 如果這是一個理想的功能,我可能會恢復漂亮的迭代器,但下面的Sven代碼具有實現。
  • 這是一個有意識的設計決定,使分隔符編譯時常量而不是對象常量。 這意味著您不能在運行時動態提供分隔符,但這也意味著沒有不必要的開銷。 Dennis Zickefoose在下面的Sven代碼的評論中提出了基於對象的分隔符配置。 如果需要,這可以作為替代特徵來實現。
  • 目前不太清楚如何定制嵌套的容器分隔符。
  • 請記住,這個庫的目的是允許快速的容器打印設施,你需要零編碼 。 它不是一個通用的格式化庫,而是一個開發工具,用於緩解為容器檢測編寫鍋爐代碼的需求。

感謝所有貢獻的人!

注意:如果您正在尋找一種快速部署自定義分隔符的方法,以下是使用類型擦除的一種方法。 我們假設你已經構建了一個分隔符類MyDel ,如下所示:

struct MyDel { static const pretty_print::delimiters_values<char> values; };
const pretty_print::delimiters_values<char> MyDel::values = { "<", "; ", ">" };

現在我們希望能夠編寫std::cout << MyPrinter(v) << std::endl; 對於使用這些分隔符的某個容器。 MyPrinter將是一個類型擦除類,如下所示:

struct wrapper_base
{
  virtual ~wrapper_base() { }
  virtual std::ostream & stream(std::ostream & o) = 0;
};

template <typename T, typename Delims>
struct wrapper : public wrapper_base
{
  wrapper(const T & t) : t(t) { }
  std::ostream & stream(std::ostream & o)
  {
    return o << pretty_print::print_container_helper<T, char, std::char_traits<char>, Delims>(t);
  }
private:
  const T & t;
};

template <typename Delims>
struct MyPrinter
{
  template <typename Container> MyPrinter(const Container & c) : base(new wrapper<Container, Delims>(c)) { }
  ~MyPrinter() { delete base; }
  wrapper_base * base;
};

template <typename Delims>
std::ostream & operator<<(std::ostream & o, const MyPrinter<Delims> & p) { return p.base->stream(o); }

The goal here is to use ADL to do customization of how we pretty print.

You pass in a formatter tag, and override 4 functions (before, after, between and descend) in the tag's namespace. This changes how the formatter prints 'adornments' when iterating over containers.

A default formatter that does {(a->b),(c->d)} for maps, (a,b,c) for tupleoids, "hello" for strings, [x,y,z] for everything else included.

It should "just work" with 3rd party iterable types (and treat them like "everything else").

If you want custom adornments for your 3rd party iterables, simply create your own tag. It will take a bit of work to handle map descent (you need to overload pretty_print_descend( your_tag to return pretty_print::decorator::map_magic_tag<your_tag> ). Maybe there is a cleaner way to do this, not sure.

A little library to detect iterability, and tuple-ness:

namespace details {
  using std::begin; using std::end;
  template<class T, class=void>
  struct is_iterable_test:std::false_type{};
  template<class T>
  struct is_iterable_test<T,
    decltype((void)(
      (void)(begin(std::declval<T>())==end(std::declval<T>()))
      , ((void)(std::next(begin(std::declval<T>()))))
      , ((void)(*begin(std::declval<T>())))
      , 1
    ))
  >:std::true_type{};
  template<class T>struct is_tupleoid:std::false_type{};
  template<class...Ts>struct is_tupleoid<std::tuple<Ts...>>:std::true_type{};
  template<class...Ts>struct is_tupleoid<std::pair<Ts...>>:std::true_type{};
  // template<class T, size_t N>struct is_tupleoid<std::array<T,N>>:std::true_type{}; // complete, but problematic
}
template<class T>struct is_iterable:details::is_iterable_test<std::decay_t<T>>{};
template<class T, std::size_t N>struct is_iterable<T(&)[N]>:std::true_type{}; // bypass decay
template<class T>struct is_tupleoid:details::is_tupleoid<std::decay_t<T>>{};

template<class T>struct is_visitable:std::integral_constant<bool, is_iterable<T>{}||is_tupleoid<T>{}> {};

A library that lets us visit the contents of an iterable or tuple type object:

template<class C, class F>
std::enable_if_t<is_iterable<C>{}> visit_first(C&& c, F&& f) {
  using std::begin; using std::end;
  auto&& b = begin(c);
  auto&& e = end(c);
  if (b==e)
      return;
  std::forward<F>(f)(*b);
}
template<class C, class F>
std::enable_if_t<is_iterable<C>{}> visit_all_but_first(C&& c, F&& f) {
  using std::begin; using std::end;
  auto it = begin(c);
  auto&& e = end(c);
  if (it==e)
      return;
  it = std::next(it);
  for( ; it!=e; it = std::next(it) ) {
    f(*it);
  }
}

namespace details {
  template<class Tup, class F>
  void visit_first( std::index_sequence<>, Tup&&, F&& ) {}
  template<size_t... Is, class Tup, class F>
  void visit_first( std::index_sequence<0,Is...>, Tup&& tup, F&& f ) {
    std::forward<F>(f)( std::get<0>( std::forward<Tup>(tup) ) );
  }
  template<class Tup, class F>
  void visit_all_but_first( std::index_sequence<>, Tup&&, F&& ) {}
  template<size_t... Is,class Tup, class F>
  void visit_all_but_first( std::index_sequence<0,Is...>, Tup&& tup, F&& f ) {
    int unused[] = {0,((void)(
      f( std::get<Is>(std::forward<Tup>(tup)) )
    ),0)...};
    (void)(unused);
  }
}
template<class Tup, class F>
std::enable_if_t<is_tupleoid<Tup>{}> visit_first(Tup&& tup, F&& f) {
  details::visit_first( std::make_index_sequence< std::tuple_size<std::decay_t<Tup>>{} >{}, std::forward<Tup>(tup), std::forward<F>(f) );
}
template<class Tup, class F>
std::enable_if_t<is_tupleoid<Tup>{}> visit_all_but_first(Tup&& tup, F&& f) {
  details::visit_all_but_first( std::make_index_sequence< std::tuple_size<std::decay_t<Tup>>{} >{}, std::forward<Tup>(tup), std::forward<F>(f) );
}

A pretty printing library:

namespace pretty_print {
  namespace decorator {
    struct default_tag {};
    template<class Old>
    struct map_magic_tag:Old {}; // magic for maps

    // Maps get {}s. Write trait `is_associative` to generalize:
    template<class CharT, class Traits, class...Xs >
    void pretty_print_before( default_tag, std::basic_ostream<CharT, Traits>& s, std::map<Xs...> const& ) {
      s << CharT('{');
    }

    template<class CharT, class Traits, class...Xs >
    void pretty_print_after( default_tag, std::basic_ostream<CharT, Traits>& s, std::map<Xs...> const& ) {
      s << CharT('}');
    }

    // tuples and pairs get ():
    template<class CharT, class Traits, class Tup >
    std::enable_if_t<is_tupleoid<Tup>{}> pretty_print_before( default_tag, std::basic_ostream<CharT, Traits>& s, Tup const& ) {
      s << CharT('(');
    }

    template<class CharT, class Traits, class Tup >
    std::enable_if_t<is_tupleoid<Tup>{}> pretty_print_after( default_tag, std::basic_ostream<CharT, Traits>& s, Tup const& ) {
      s << CharT(')');
    }

    // strings with the same character type get ""s:
    template<class CharT, class Traits, class...Xs >
    void pretty_print_before( default_tag, std::basic_ostream<CharT, Traits>& s, std::basic_string<CharT, Xs...> const& ) {
      s << CharT('"');
    }
    template<class CharT, class Traits, class...Xs >
    void pretty_print_after( default_tag, std::basic_ostream<CharT, Traits>& s, std::basic_string<CharT, Xs...> const& ) {
      s << CharT('"');
    }
    // and pack the characters together:
    template<class CharT, class Traits, class...Xs >
    void pretty_print_between( default_tag, std::basic_ostream<CharT, Traits>&, std::basic_string<CharT, Xs...> const& ) {}

    // map magic. When iterating over the contents of a map, use the map_magic_tag:
    template<class...Xs>
    map_magic_tag<default_tag> pretty_print_descend( default_tag, std::map<Xs...> const& ) {
      return {};
    }
    template<class old_tag, class C>
    old_tag pretty_print_descend( map_magic_tag<old_tag>, C const& ) {
      return {};
    }

    // When printing a pair immediately within a map, use -> as a separator:
    template<class old_tag, class CharT, class Traits, class...Xs >
    void pretty_print_between( map_magic_tag<old_tag>, std::basic_ostream<CharT, Traits>& s, std::pair<Xs...> const& ) {
      s << CharT('-') << CharT('>');
    }
  }

  // default behavior:
  template<class CharT, class Traits, class Tag, class Container >
  void pretty_print_before( Tag const&, std::basic_ostream<CharT, Traits>& s, Container const& ) {
    s << CharT('[');
  }
  template<class CharT, class Traits, class Tag, class Container >
  void pretty_print_after( Tag const&, std::basic_ostream<CharT, Traits>& s, Container const& ) {
    s << CharT(']');
  }
  template<class CharT, class Traits, class Tag, class Container >
  void pretty_print_between( Tag const&, std::basic_ostream<CharT, Traits>& s, Container const& ) {
    s << CharT(',');
  }
  template<class Tag, class Container>
  Tag&& pretty_print_descend( Tag&& tag, Container const& ) {
    return std::forward<Tag>(tag);
  }

  // print things by default by using <<:
  template<class Tag=decorator::default_tag, class Scalar, class CharT, class Traits>
  std::enable_if_t<!is_visitable<Scalar>{}> print( std::basic_ostream<CharT, Traits>& os, Scalar&& scalar, Tag&&=Tag{} ) {
    os << std::forward<Scalar>(scalar);
  }
  // for anything visitable (see above), use the pretty print algorithm:
  template<class Tag=decorator::default_tag, class C, class CharT, class Traits>
  std::enable_if_t<is_visitable<C>{}> print( std::basic_ostream<CharT, Traits>& os, C&& c, Tag&& tag=Tag{} ) {
    pretty_print_before( std::forward<Tag>(tag), os, std::forward<C>(c) );
    visit_first( c, [&](auto&& elem) {
      print( os, std::forward<decltype(elem)>(elem), pretty_print_descend( std::forward<Tag>(tag), std::forward<C>(c) ) );
    });
    visit_all_but_first( c, [&](auto&& elem) {
      pretty_print_between( std::forward<Tag>(tag), os, std::forward<C>(c) );
      print( os, std::forward<decltype(elem)>(elem), pretty_print_descend( std::forward<Tag>(tag), std::forward<C>(c) ) );
    });
    pretty_print_after( std::forward<Tag>(tag), os, std::forward<C>(c) );
  }
}

測試代碼:

int main() {
  std::vector<int> x = {1,2,3};

  pretty_print::print( std::cout, x );
  std::cout << "\n";

  std::map< std::string, int > m;
  m["hello"] = 3;
  m["world"] = 42;

  pretty_print::print( std::cout, m );
  std::cout << "\n";
}

live example

This does use C++14 features (some _t aliases, and auto&& lambdas), but none are essential.


The code proved to be handy on several occasions now and I feel the expense to get into customization as usage is quite low. Thus, I decided to release it under MIT license and provide a github repository where the header and a small example file can be downloaded.

http://djmuw.github.io/prettycc

0. Preface and wording

A 'decoration' in terms of this answer is a set of prefix-string, delimiter-string and a postfix-string. Where the prefix string is inserted into a stream before and the postfix string after the values of a container (see 2. Target containers). The delimiter string is inserted between the values of the respective container.

Note: Actually, this answer does not address the question to 100% since the decoration is not strictly compile time constant because runtime checks are required to check whether a custom decoration has been applied to the current stream. Nevertheless, I think it has some decent features.

Note2: May have minor bugs since it is not yet well tested.

1. General idea / usage

Zero additional code required for usage

It is to be kept as easy as

#include <vector>
#include "pretty.h"

int main()
{
  std::cout << std::vector<int>{1,2,3,4,5}; // prints 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
  return 0;
}

Easy customization ...

... with respect to specific stream object

#include <vector>
#include "pretty.h"

int main()
{
  // set decoration for std::vector<int> for cout object
  std::cout << pretty::decoration<std::vector<int>>("(", ",", ")");
  std::cout << std::vector<int>{1,2,3,4,5}; // prints (1,2,3,4,5)
  return 0;
}

or with respect to all streams:

#include <vector>
#include "pretty.h"

// set decoration for std::vector<int> for all ostream objects
PRETTY_DEFAULT_DECORATION(std::vector<int>, "{", ", ", "}")

int main()
{
  std::cout << std::vector<int>{1,2,3,4,5}; // prints {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}
  std::cout << pretty::decoration<std::vector<int>>("(", ",", ")");
  std::cout << std::vector<int>{1,2,3,4,5}; // prints (1,2,3,4,5)
  return 0;
}

Rough description

  • The code includes a class template providing a default decoration for any type
  • which can be specialized to change the default decoration for (a) certain type(s) and it is
  • using the private storage provided by ios_base using xalloc / pword in order to save a pointer to a pretty::decor object specifically decorating a certain type on a certain stream.

If no pretty::decor<T> object for this stream has been set up explicitly pretty::defaulted<T, charT, chartraitT>::decoration() is called to obtain the default decoration for the given type. The class pretty::defaulted is to be specialized to customize default decorations.

2. Target objects / containers

Target objects obj for the 'pretty decoration' of this code are objects having either

  • overloads std::begin and std::end defined (includes C-Style arrays),
  • having begin(obj) and end(obj) available via ADL,
  • are of type std::tuple
  • or of type std::pair .

The code includes a trait for identification of classes with range features ( begin / end ). (There's no check included, whether begin(obj) == end(obj) is a valid expression, though.)

The code provides operator<< s in the global namespace that only apply for classes not having a more specialized version of operator<< available. Therefore, in example std::string is not printed using the operator in this code although having a valid begin / end pair.

3. Utilization and customization

Decorations can be imposed seperately for every type (except different tuple s) and stream (not stream type!). (Ie a std::vector<int> can have a different decorations for different stream objects.)

A) Default decoration

The default prefix is "" (nothing) as is the default postfix, while the default delimiter is ", " (comma+space).

B) Customized default decoration of a type by specializing the pretty::defaulted class template

The struct defaulted has a static member function decoration() returning a decor object which includes the default values for the given type.

Example using array:

Cutomize default array printing:

namespace pretty
{
  template<class T, std::size_t N>
  struct defaulted<T[N]>
  {
    static decor<T[N]> decoration()
    {
      return{ { "(" }, { ":" }, { ")" } };
    }
  };
}

Print an arry array:

float e[5] = { 3.4f, 4.3f, 5.2f, 1.1f, 22.2f };
std::cout << e << '\n'; // prints (3.4:4.3:5.2:1.1:22.2)

Using the PRETTY_DEFAULT_DECORATION(TYPE, PREFIX, DELIM, POSTFIX, ...) macro for char streams

The macro expands to

namespace pretty { 
  template< __VA_ARGS__ >
  struct defaulted< TYPE > {
    static decor< TYPE > decoration() {
      return { PREFIX, DELIM, POSTFIX };
    } 
  }; 
} 

enabling the above partial specialization to be rewritten to

PRETTY_DEFAULT_DECORATION(T[N], "", ";", "", class T, std::size_t N)

or inserting a full specialization like

PRETTY_DEFAULT_DECORATION(std::vector<int>, "(", ", ", ")")

Another macro for wchar_t streams is included: PRETTY_DEFAULT_WDECORATION .

C) Impose decoration on streams

The function pretty::decoration is used to impose a decoration on a certain stream. There are overloads taking either - one string argument being the delimiter (adopting prefix and postfix from the defaulted class) - or three string arguments assembling the complete decoration

Complete decoration for given type and stream

float e[3] = { 3.4f, 4.3f, 5.2f };
std::stringstream u;
// add { ; } decoration to u
u << pretty::decoration<float[3]>("{", "; ", "}");

// use { ; } decoration
u << e << '\n'; // prints {3.4; 4.3; 5.2}

// uses decoration returned by defaulted<float[3]>::decoration()
std::cout << e; // prints 3.4, 4.3, 5.2

Customization of delimiter for given stream

PRETTY_DEFAULT_DECORATION(float[3], "{{{", ",", "}}}")

std::stringstream v;
v << e; // prints {{{3.4,4.3,5.2}}}

v << pretty::decoration<float[3]>(":");
v << e; // prints {{{3.4:4.3:5.2}}}

v << pretty::decoration<float[3]>("((", "=", "))");
v << e; // prints ((3.4=4.3=5.2))

4. Special handling of std::tuple

Instead of allowing a specialization for every possible tuple type, this code applies any decoration available for std::tuple<void*> to all kind of std::tuple<...> s.

5. Remove custom decoration from stream

To go back to the defaulted decoration for a given type use pretty::clear function template on the stream s .

s << pretty::clear<std::vector<int>>();

5. Further examples

Printing "matrix-like" with newline delimiter

std::vector<std::vector<int>> m{ {1,2,3}, {4,5,6}, {7,8,9} };
std::cout << pretty::decoration<std::vector<std::vector<int>>>("\n");
std::cout << m;

打印

1, 2, 3
4, 5, 6
7, 8, 9

See it on ideone/KKUebZ

6. Code

#ifndef pretty_print_0x57547_sa4884X_0_1_h_guard_
#define pretty_print_0x57547_sa4884X_0_1_h_guard_

#include <string>
#include <iostream>
#include <type_traits>
#include <iterator>
#include <utility>

#define PRETTY_DEFAULT_DECORATION(TYPE, PREFIX, DELIM, POSTFIX, ...) \
    namespace pretty { template< __VA_ARGS__ >\
    struct defaulted< TYPE > {\
    static decor< TYPE > decoration(){\
      return { PREFIX, DELIM, POSTFIX };\
    } /*decoration*/ }; /*defaulted*/} /*pretty*/

#define PRETTY_DEFAULT_WDECORATION(TYPE, PREFIX, DELIM, POSTFIX, ...) \
    namespace pretty { template< __VA_ARGS__ >\
    struct defaulted< TYPE, wchar_t, std::char_traits<wchar_t> > {\
    static decor< TYPE, wchar_t, std::char_traits<wchar_t> > decoration(){\
      return { PREFIX, DELIM, POSTFIX };\
    } /*decoration*/ }; /*defaulted*/} /*pretty*/

namespace pretty
{

  namespace detail
  {
    // drag in begin and end overloads
    using std::begin;
    using std::end;
    // helper template
    template <int I> using _ol = std::integral_constant<int, I>*;
    // SFINAE check whether T is a range with begin/end
    template<class T>
    class is_range
    {
      // helper function declarations using expression sfinae
      template <class U, _ol<0> = nullptr>
      static std::false_type b(...);
      template <class U, _ol<1> = nullptr>
      static auto b(U &v) -> decltype(begin(v), std::true_type());
      template <class U, _ol<0> = nullptr>
      static std::false_type e(...);
      template <class U, _ol<1> = nullptr>
      static auto e(U &v) -> decltype(end(v), std::true_type());
      // return types
      using b_return = decltype(b<T>(std::declval<T&>()));
      using e_return = decltype(e<T>(std::declval<T&>()));
    public:
      static const bool value = b_return::value && e_return::value;
    };
  }

  // holder class for data
  template<class T, class CharT = char, class TraitT = std::char_traits<CharT>>
  struct decor
  {
    static const int xindex;
    std::basic_string<CharT, TraitT> prefix, delimiter, postfix;
    decor(std::basic_string<CharT, TraitT> const & pre = "",
      std::basic_string<CharT, TraitT> const & delim = "",
      std::basic_string<CharT, TraitT> const & post = "")
      : prefix(pre), delimiter(delim), postfix(post) {}
  };

  template<class T, class charT, class traits>
  int const decor<T, charT, traits>::xindex = std::ios_base::xalloc();

  namespace detail
  {

    template<class T, class CharT, class TraitT>
    void manage_decor(std::ios_base::event evt, std::ios_base &s, int const idx)
    {
      using deco_type = decor<T, CharT, TraitT>;
      if (evt == std::ios_base::erase_event)
      { // erase deco
        void const * const p = s.pword(idx);
        if (p)
        {
          delete static_cast<deco_type const * const>(p);
          s.pword(idx) = nullptr;
        }
      }
      else if (evt == std::ios_base::copyfmt_event)
      { // copy deco
        void const * const p = s.pword(idx);
        if (p)
        {
          auto np = new deco_type{ *static_cast<deco_type const * const>(p) };
          s.pword(idx) = static_cast<void*>(np);
        }
      }
    }

    template<class T> struct clearer {};

    template<class T, class CharT, class TraitT>
    std::basic_ostream<CharT, TraitT>& operator<< (
      std::basic_ostream<CharT, TraitT> &s, clearer<T> const &)
    {
      using deco_type = decor<T, CharT, TraitT>;
      void const * const p = s.pword(deco_type::xindex);
      if (p)
      { // delete if set
        delete static_cast<deco_type const *>(p);
        s.pword(deco_type::xindex) = nullptr;
      }
      return s;
    }

    template <class CharT> 
    struct default_data { static const CharT * decor[3]; };
    template <> 
    const char * default_data<char>::decor[3] = { "", ", ", "" };
    template <> 
    const wchar_t * default_data<wchar_t>::decor[3] = { L"", L", ", L"" };

  }

  // Clear decoration for T
  template<class T>
  detail::clearer<T> clear() { return{}; }
  template<class T, class CharT, class TraitT>
  void clear(std::basic_ostream<CharT, TraitT> &s) { s << detail::clearer<T>{}; }

  // impose decoration on ostream
  template<class T, class CharT, class TraitT>
  std::basic_ostream<CharT, TraitT>& operator<<(
    std::basic_ostream<CharT, TraitT> &s, decor<T, CharT, TraitT> && h)
  {
    using deco_type = decor<T, CharT, TraitT>;
    void const * const p = s.pword(deco_type::xindex);
    // delete if already set
    if (p) delete static_cast<deco_type const *>(p);
    s.pword(deco_type::xindex) = static_cast<void *>(new deco_type{ std::move(h) });
    // check whether we alread have a callback registered
    if (s.iword(deco_type::xindex) == 0)
    { // if this is not the case register callback and set iword
      s.register_callback(detail::manage_decor<T, CharT, TraitT>, deco_type::xindex);
      s.iword(deco_type::xindex) = 1;
    }
    return s;
  }

  template<class T, class CharT = char, class TraitT = std::char_traits<CharT>>
  struct defaulted
  {
    static inline decor<T, CharT, TraitT> decoration()
    {
      return{ detail::default_data<CharT>::decor[0],
        detail::default_data<CharT>::decor[1],
        detail::default_data<CharT>::decor[2] };
    }
  };

  template<class T, class CharT = char, class TraitT = std::char_traits<CharT>>
  decor<T, CharT, TraitT> decoration(
    std::basic_string<CharT, TraitT> const & prefix,
    std::basic_string<CharT, TraitT> const & delimiter,
    std::basic_string<CharT, TraitT> const & postfix)
  {
    return{ prefix, delimiter, postfix };
  }

  template<class T, class CharT = char,
  class TraitT = std::char_traits < CharT >>
    decor<T, CharT, TraitT> decoration(
      std::basic_string<CharT, TraitT> const & delimiter)
  {
    using str_type = std::basic_string<CharT, TraitT>;
    return{ defaulted<T, CharT, TraitT>::decoration().prefix,
      delimiter, defaulted<T, CharT, TraitT>::decoration().postfix };
  }

  template<class T, class CharT = char,
  class TraitT = std::char_traits < CharT >>
    decor<T, CharT, TraitT> decoration(CharT const * const prefix,
      CharT const * const delimiter, CharT const * const postfix)
  {
    using str_type = std::basic_string<CharT, TraitT>;
    return{ str_type{ prefix }, str_type{ delimiter }, str_type{ postfix } };
  }

  template<class T, class CharT = char,
  class TraitT = std::char_traits < CharT >>
    decor<T, CharT, TraitT> decoration(CharT const * const delimiter)
  {
    using str_type = std::basic_string<CharT, TraitT>;
    return{ defaulted<T, CharT, TraitT>::decoration().prefix,
      str_type{ delimiter }, defaulted<T, CharT, TraitT>::decoration().postfix };
  }

  template<typename T, std::size_t N, std::size_t L>
  struct tuple
  {
    template<class CharT, class TraitT>
    static void print(std::basic_ostream<CharT, TraitT>& s, T const & value,
      std::basic_string<CharT, TraitT> const &delimiter)
    {
      s << std::get<N>(value) << delimiter;
      tuple<T, N + 1, L>::print(s, value, delimiter);
    }
  };

  template<typename T, std::size_t N>
  struct tuple<T, N, N>
  {
    template<class CharT, class TraitT>
    static void print(std::basic_ostream<CharT, TraitT>& s, T const & value,
      std::basic_string<CharT, TraitT> const &) {
      s << std::get<N>(value);
    }
  };

}

template<class CharT, class TraitT>
std::basic_ostream<CharT, TraitT> & operator<< (
  std::basic_ostream<CharT, TraitT> &s, std::tuple<> const & v)
{
  using deco_type = pretty::decor<std::tuple<void*>, CharT, TraitT>;
  using defaulted_type = pretty::defaulted<std::tuple<void*>, CharT, TraitT>;
  void const * const p = s.pword(deco_type::xindex);
  auto const d = static_cast<deco_type const * const>(p);
  s << (d ? d->prefix : defaulted_type::decoration().prefix);
  s << (d ? d->postfix : defaulted_type::decoration().postfix);
  return s;
}

template<class CharT, class TraitT, class ... T>
std::basic_ostream<CharT, TraitT> & operator<< (
  std::basic_ostream<CharT, TraitT> &s, std::tuple<T...> const & v)
{
  using deco_type = pretty::decor<std::tuple<void*>, CharT, TraitT>;
  using defaulted_type = pretty::defaulted<std::tuple<void*>, CharT, TraitT>;
  using pretty_tuple = pretty::tuple<std::tuple<T...>, 0U, sizeof...(T)-1U>;
  void const * const p = s.pword(deco_type::xindex);
  auto const d = static_cast<deco_type const * const>(p);
  s << (d ? d->prefix : defaulted_type::decoration().prefix);
  pretty_tuple::print(s, v, d ? d->delimiter : 
    defaulted_type::decoration().delimiter);
  s << (d ? d->postfix : defaulted_type::decoration().postfix);
  return s;
}

template<class T, class U, class CharT, class TraitT>
std::basic_ostream<CharT, TraitT> & operator<< (
  std::basic_ostream<CharT, TraitT> &s, std::pair<T, U> const & v)
{
  using deco_type = pretty::decor<std::pair<T, U>, CharT, TraitT>;
  using defaulted_type = pretty::defaulted<std::pair<T, U>, CharT, TraitT>;
  void const * const p = s.pword(deco_type::xindex);
  auto const d = static_cast<deco_type const * const>(p);
  s << (d ? d->prefix : defaulted_type::decoration().prefix);
  s << v.first;
  s << (d ? d->delimiter : defaulted_type::decoration().delimiter);
  s << v.second;
  s << (d ? d->postfix : defaulted_type::decoration().postfix);
  return s;
}


template<class T, class CharT = char,
class TraitT = std::char_traits < CharT >>
  typename std::enable_if < pretty::detail::is_range<T>::value,
  std::basic_ostream < CharT, TraitT >> ::type & operator<< (
    std::basic_ostream<CharT, TraitT> &s, T const & v)
{
  bool first(true);
  using deco_type = pretty::decor<T, CharT, TraitT>;
  using default_type = pretty::defaulted<T, CharT, TraitT>;
  void const * const p = s.pword(deco_type::xindex);
  auto d = static_cast<pretty::decor<T, CharT, TraitT> const * const>(p);
  s << (d ? d->prefix : default_type::decoration().prefix);
  for (auto const & e : v)
  { // v is range thus range based for works
    if (!first) s << (d ? d->delimiter : default_type::decoration().delimiter);
    s << e;
    first = false;
  }
  s << (d ? d->postfix : default_type::decoration().postfix);
  return s;
}

#endif // pretty_print_0x57547_sa4884X_0_1_h_guard_

I am going to add another answer here, because I have come up with a different approach to my previous one, and that is to use locale facets.

The basics are here

Essentially what you do is:

  1. Create a class that derives from std::locale::facet . The slight downside is that you will need a compilation unit somewhere to hold its id. Let's call it MyPrettyVectorPrinter. You'd probably give it a better name, and also create ones for pair and map.
  2. In your stream function, you check std::has_facet< MyPrettyVectorPrinter >
  3. If that returns true, extract it with std::use_facet< MyPrettyVectorPrinter >( os.getloc() )
  4. Your facet objects will have values for the delimiters and you can read them. If the facet isn't found, your print function ( operator<< ) provides default ones. Note you can do the same thing for reading a vector.

I like this method because you can use a default print whilst still being able to use a custom override.

The downsides are needing a library for your facet if used in multiple projects (so can't just be headers-only) and also the fact that you need to beware about the expense of creating a new locale object.

I have written this as a new solution rather than modify my other one because I believe both approaches can be correct and you take your pick.


這已被編輯了幾次,我們決定調用包裝RangePrinter集合的主類

一旦您編寫了一次性操作符<<重載,這應該會自動與任何集合一起工作,除了您需要一個特殊映射來打印該對,並且可能需要在其中自定義分隔符。

您也可以在項目上使用特殊的“打印”功能,而不是直接輸出。 有點像STL算法允許你傳入自定義謂詞。 有了地圖,你可以用這種方式使用它,使用std :: pair的自定義打印機。

您的“默認”打印機只會將其輸出到流中。

好的,讓我們來研究一下自定義打印機。 我會將我的外部類更改為RangePrinter。 所以我們有2個迭代器和一些分隔符,但沒有定制如何打印實際項目。

struct DefaultPrinter
{
   template< typename T >
   std::ostream & operator()( std::ostream& os, const T& t ) const
   {
     return os << t;
   }

   // overload for std::pair
   template< typename K, typename V >
   std::ostream & operator()( std::ostream & os, std::pair<K,V> const& p)
   {
      return os << p.first << '=' << p.second;
   }
};

// some prototypes
template< typename FwdIter, typename Printer > class RangePrinter;

template< typename FwdIter, typename Printer > 
  std::ostream & operator<<( std::ostream &, 
        RangePrinter<FwdIter, Printer> const& );

template< typename FwdIter, typename Printer=DefaultPrinter >
class RangePrinter
{
    FwdIter begin;
    FwdIter end;
    std::string delim;
    std::string open;
    std::string close;
    Printer printer;

    friend std::ostream& operator<< <>( std::ostream&, 
         RangePrinter<FwdIter,Printer> const& );

public:
    RangePrinter( FwdIter b, FwdIter e, Printer p,
         std::string const& d, std::string const & o, std::string const& c )
      : begin( b ), end( e ), printer( p ), open( o ), close( c )
    {
    } 

     // with no "printer" variable
    RangePrinter( FwdIter b, FwdIter e,
         std::string const& d, std::string const & o, std::string const& c )
      : begin( b ), end( e ), open( o ), close( c )
    {
    } 

};


template<typename FwdIter, typename Printer>
std::ostream& operator<<( std::ostream& os, 
          RangePrinter<FwdIter, Printer> const& range )
{
    const Printer & printer = range.printer;

    os << range.open;
    FwdIter begin = range.begin, end = range.end;

    // print the first item
    if (begin == end) 
    { 
      return os << range.close; 
    }

    printer( os, *begin );

    // print the rest with delim as a prefix
    for( ++begin; begin != end; ++begin )
    {
       os << range.delim;
       printer( os, *begin );
    }
    return os << range.close;
}

Now by default it will work for maps as long as the key and value types are both printable and you can put in your own special item printer for when they are not (as you can with any other type), or if you do not want = as the delimiter.

I am moving the free-function to create these to the end now:

A free-function (iterator version) would look like something this and you could even have defaults:

template<typename Collection>
RangePrinter<typename Collection::const_iterator> rangePrinter
    ( const Collection& coll, const char * delim=",", 
       const char * open="[", const char * close="]")
{
   return RangePrinter< typename Collection::const_iterator >
     ( coll.begin(), coll.end(), delim, open, close );
}

You could then use it for std::set by

 std::cout << outputFormatter( mySet );

You can also write free-function version that take a custom printer and ones that take two iterators. In any case they will resolve the template parameters for you, and you will be able to pass them through as temporaries.


My solution is simple.h , which is part of scc package. All std containers, maps, sets, c-arrays are printable.


該解決方案受到Marcelo解決方案的啟發,並進行了一些更改:

#include <iostream>
#include <iterator>
#include <type_traits>
#include <vector>
#include <algorithm>

// This works similar to ostream_iterator, but doesn't print a delimiter after the final item
template<typename T, typename TChar = char, typename TCharTraits = std::char_traits<TChar> >
class pretty_ostream_iterator : public std::iterator<std::output_iterator_tag, void, void, void, void>
{
public:
    typedef TChar char_type;
    typedef TCharTraits traits_type;
    typedef std::basic_ostream<TChar, TCharTraits> ostream_type;

    pretty_ostream_iterator(ostream_type &stream, const char_type *delim = NULL)
        : _stream(&stream), _delim(delim), _insertDelim(false)
    {
    }

    pretty_ostream_iterator<T, TChar, TCharTraits>& operator=(const T &value)
    {
        if( _delim != NULL )
        {
            // Don't insert a delimiter if this is the first time the function is called
            if( _insertDelim )
                (*_stream) << _delim;
            else
                _insertDelim = true;
        }
        (*_stream) << value;
        return *this;
    }

    pretty_ostream_iterator<T, TChar, TCharTraits>& operator*()
    {
        return *this;
    }

    pretty_ostream_iterator<T, TChar, TCharTraits>& operator++()
    {
        return *this;
    }

    pretty_ostream_iterator<T, TChar, TCharTraits>& operator++(int)
    {
        return *this;
    }
private:
    ostream_type *_stream;
    const char_type *_delim;
    bool _insertDelim;
};

#if _MSC_VER >= 1400

// Declare pretty_ostream_iterator as checked
template<typename T, typename TChar, typename TCharTraits>
struct std::_Is_checked_helper<pretty_ostream_iterator<T, TChar, TCharTraits> > : public std::tr1::true_type
{
};

#endif // _MSC_VER >= 1400

namespace std
{
    // Pre-declarations of container types so we don't actually have to include the relevant headers if not needed, speeding up compilation time.
    // These aren't necessary if you do actually include the headers.
    template<typename T, typename TAllocator> class vector;
    template<typename T, typename TAllocator> class list;
    template<typename T, typename TTraits, typename TAllocator> class set;
    template<typename TKey, typename TValue, typename TTraits, typename TAllocator> class map;
}

// Basic is_container template; specialize to derive from std::true_type for all desired container types
template<typename T> struct is_container : public std::false_type { };

// Mark vector as a container
template<typename T, typename TAllocator> struct is_container<std::vector<T, TAllocator> > : public std::true_type { };

// Mark list as a container
template<typename T, typename TAllocator> struct is_container<std::list<T, TAllocator> > : public std::true_type { };

// Mark set as a container
template<typename T, typename TTraits, typename TAllocator> struct is_container<std::set<T, TTraits, TAllocator> > : public std::true_type { };

// Mark map as a container
template<typename TKey, typename TValue, typename TTraits, typename TAllocator> struct is_container<std::map<TKey, TValue, TTraits, TAllocator> > : public std::true_type { };

// Holds the delimiter values for a specific character type
template<typename TChar>
struct delimiters_values
{
    typedef TChar char_type;
    const TChar *prefix;
    const TChar *delimiter;
    const TChar *postfix;
};

// Defines the delimiter values for a specific container and character type
template<typename T, typename TChar>
struct delimiters
{
    static const delimiters_values<TChar> values; 
};

// Default delimiters
template<typename T> struct delimiters<T, char> { static const delimiters_values<char> values; };
template<typename T> const delimiters_values<char> delimiters<T, char>::values = { "{ ", ", ", " }" };
template<typename T> struct delimiters<T, wchar_t> { static const delimiters_values<wchar_t> values; };
template<typename T> const delimiters_values<wchar_t> delimiters<T, wchar_t>::values = { L"{ ", L", ", L" }" };

// Delimiters for set
template<typename T, typename TTraits, typename TAllocator> struct delimiters<std::set<T, TTraits, TAllocator>, char> { static const delimiters_values<char> values; };
template<typename T, typename TTraits, typename TAllocator> const delimiters_values<char> delimiters<std::set<T, TTraits, TAllocator>, char>::values = { "[ ", ", ", " ]" };
template<typename T, typename TTraits, typename TAllocator> struct delimiters<std::set<T, TTraits, TAllocator>, wchar_t> { static const delimiters_values<wchar_t> values; };
template<typename T, typename TTraits, typename TAllocator> const delimiters_values<wchar_t> delimiters<std::set<T, TTraits, TAllocator>, wchar_t>::values = { L"[ ", L", ", L" ]" };

// Delimiters for pair
template<typename T1, typename T2> struct delimiters<std::pair<T1, T2>, char> { static const delimiters_values<char> values; };
template<typename T1, typename T2> const delimiters_values<char> delimiters<std::pair<T1, T2>, char>::values = { "(", ", ", ")" };
template<typename T1, typename T2> struct delimiters<std::pair<T1, T2>, wchar_t> { static const delimiters_values<wchar_t> values; };
template<typename T1, typename T2> const delimiters_values<wchar_t> delimiters<std::pair<T1, T2>, wchar_t>::values = { L"(", L", ", L")" };

// Functor to print containers. You can use this directly if you want to specificy a non-default delimiters type.
template<typename T, typename TChar = char, typename TCharTraits = std::char_traits<TChar>, typename TDelimiters = delimiters<T, TChar> >
struct print_container_helper
{
    typedef TChar char_type;
    typedef TDelimiters delimiters_type;
    typedef std::basic_ostream<TChar, TCharTraits>& ostream_type;

    print_container_helper(const T &container)
        : _container(&container)
    {
    }

    void operator()(ostream_type &stream) const
    {
        if( delimiters_type::values.prefix != NULL )
            stream << delimiters_type::values.prefix;
        std::copy(_container->begin(), _container->end(), pretty_ostream_iterator<typename T::value_type, TChar, TCharTraits>(stream, delimiters_type::values.delimiter));
        if( delimiters_type::values.postfix != NULL )
            stream << delimiters_type::values.postfix;
    }
private:
    const T *_container;
};

// Prints a print_container_helper to the specified stream.
template<typename T, typename TChar, typename TCharTraits, typename TDelimiters>
std::basic_ostream<TChar, TCharTraits>& operator<<(std::basic_ostream<TChar, TCharTraits> &stream, const print_container_helper<T, TChar, TDelimiters> &helper)
{
    helper(stream);
    return stream;
}

// Prints a container to the stream using default delimiters
template<typename T, typename TChar, typename TCharTraits>
typename std::enable_if<is_container<T>::value, std::basic_ostream<TChar, TCharTraits>&>::type
    operator<<(std::basic_ostream<TChar, TCharTraits> &stream, const T &container)
{
    stream << print_container_helper<T, TChar, TCharTraits>(container);
    return stream;
}

// Prints a pair to the stream using delimiters from delimiters<std::pair<T1, T2>>.
template<typename T1, typename T2, typename TChar, typename TCharTraits>
std::basic_ostream<TChar, TCharTraits>& operator<<(std::basic_ostream<TChar, TCharTraits> &stream, const std::pair<T1, T2> &value)
{
    if( delimiters<std::pair<T1, T2>, TChar>::values.prefix != NULL )
        stream << delimiters<std::pair<T1, T2>, TChar>::values.prefix;

    stream << value.first;

    if( delimiters<std::pair<T1, T2>, TChar>::values.delimiter != NULL )
        stream << delimiters<std::pair<T1, T2>, TChar>::values.delimiter;

    stream << value.second;

    if( delimiters<std::pair<T1, T2>, TChar>::values.postfix != NULL )
        stream << delimiters<std::pair<T1, T2>, TChar>::values.postfix;
    return stream;    
}

// Used by the sample below to generate some values
struct fibonacci
{
    fibonacci() : f1(0), f2(1) { }
    int operator()()
    {
        int r = f1 + f2;
        f1 = f2;
        f2 = r;
        return f1;
    }
private:
    int f1;
    int f2;
};

int main()
{
    std::vector<int> v;
    std::generate_n(std::back_inserter(v), 10, fibonacci());

    std::cout << v << std::endl;

    // Example of using pretty_ostream_iterator directly
    std::generate_n(pretty_ostream_iterator<int>(std::cout, ";"), 20, fibonacci());
    std::cout << std::endl;
}

像Marcelo的版本一樣,它使用一個is_container類型的特徵,它必須專門用於所有需要支持的容器。 有可能使用trait來檢查value_typeconst_iteratorbegin() / end() ,但我不確定我會推薦它,因為它可能匹配符合這些條件但實際上不是容器的事物,像std::basic_string 。 同Marcelo的版本一樣,它使用可專門指定要使用的分隔符的模板。

主要區別在於我的版本圍繞著pretty_ostream_iterator ,其工作方式類似於std::ostream_iterator但不會在最後一項之後顯示分隔符。 格式化容器由print_container_helper完成,它可以直接用於打印沒有is_container特徵的容器,或指定不同的分隔符類型。

我還定義了is_container和分隔符,以便它適用於具有非標準謂詞或分配器的容器,以及char和wchar_t。 operator <<函數本身也被定義為可以同時使用char和wchar_t流。

最後,我使用了std::enable_if ,它可以作為C ++ 0x的一部分使用,並且可以在Visual C ++ 2010和g ++ 4.3(需要-std = c ++ 0x標誌)以及更高版本中使用。 這種方式對Boost沒有依賴性。





pretty-print