inputstring - java read input stream




如何在Java中讀取/轉換InputStream為String? (20)

如果你有一個java.io.InputStream對象,你應該如何處理該對象並生成一個String

假設我有一個包含文本數據的InputStream ,我想將它轉換為String ,所以例如我可以將它寫入日誌文件。

獲取InputStream並將其轉換為String的最簡單方法是什麼?

public String convertStreamToString(InputStream is) { 
    // ???
}

Apache Commons允許:

String myString = IOUtils.toString(myInputStream, "UTF-8");

當然,您可以選擇除UTF-8之外的其他字符編碼。

另見:( Docs


當輸入流來自類路徑資源(這似乎是流行的任務)時,Guava提供了更短的高效自動閉合解決方案:

String content = Files.asCharSource(new File("robots.txt"), StandardCharsets.UTF_8).read();
byte[] data = Files.asByteSource(new File("favicon.ico")).read();

要么

String content = Files.toString(new File("robots.txt"), StandardCharsets.UTF_8);
byte[] data = Files.toByteArray(new File("favicon.ico"));

還有ByteSourceCharSource一般概念,ByteSource可以輕輕地打開和關閉流。

因此,例如,而不是顯式打開一個小文件來讀取其內容:

public String read (InputStream is) {
    byte next = is.read();
    return next == -1 ? "" : next + read(is); // Recursive part: reads next byte recursively
}

要不就

 String content = Files.toString(new File("robots.txt"), StandardCharsets.UTF_8); byte[] data = Files.toByteArray(new File("favicon.ico")); 

Kotlin用戶只需:

println(InputStreamReader(is).readText())

readText()

是Kotlin標準庫的內置擴展方法。


一個很好的方法是使用Apache commons IOUtilsInputStream複製到StringWriter ......類似於

StringWriter writer = new StringWriter();
IOUtils.copy(inputStream, writer, encoding);
String theString = writer.toString();

甚至

// NB: does not close inputStream, you'll have to use try-with-resources for that
String theString = IOUtils.toString(inputStream, encoding); 

或者,如果您不想混合Streams和Writers,可以使用ByteArrayOutputStream


另一個,適用於所有Spring用戶:

import java.nio.charset.StandardCharsets;
import org.springframework.util.FileCopyUtils;

public String convertStreamToString(InputStream is) throws IOException { 
    return new String(FileCopyUtils.copyToByteArray(is), StandardCharsets.UTF_8);
}

實用方法org.springframework.util.StreamUtils與其中的實用方法類似FileCopyUtils,但它們在完成時將流保持打開狀態。


如果使用Stream Readers,請務必在結尾處關閉流

private String readStream(InputStream iStream) throws IOException {
    //build a Stream Reader, it can read char by char
    InputStreamReader iStreamReader = new InputStreamReader(iStream);
    //build a buffered Reader, so that i can read whole line at once
    BufferedReader bReader = new BufferedReader(iStreamReader);
    String line = null;
    StringBuilder builder = new StringBuilder();
    while((line = bReader.readLine()) != null) {  //Read till end
        builder.append(line);
        builder.append("\n"); // append new line to preserve lines
    }
    bReader.close();         //close all opened stuff
    iStreamReader.close();
    //iStream.close(); //EDIT: Let the creator of the stream close it!
                       // some readers may auto close the inner stream
    return builder.toString();
}

編輯:在JDK 7+上,您可以使用try-with-resources構造。

/**
 * Reads the stream into a string
 * @param iStream the input stream
 * @return the string read from the stream
 * @throws IOException when an IO error occurs
 */
private String readStream(InputStream iStream) throws IOException {

    //Buffered reader allows us to read line by line
    try (BufferedReader bReader =
                 new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(iStream))){
        StringBuilder builder = new StringBuilder();
        String line;
        while((line = bReader.readLine()) != null) {  //Read till end
            builder.append(line);
            builder.append("\n"); // append new line to preserve lines
        }
        return builder.toString();
    }
}

如果您使用的是Google-Collections / Guava,則可以執行以下操作:

InputStream stream = ...
String content = CharStreams.toString(new InputStreamReader(stream, Charsets.UTF_8));
Closeables.closeQuietly(stream);

請注意, InputStreamReader的第二個參數(即Charsets.UTF_8)不是必需的,但如果您知道它,通常最好指定編碼(您應該這樣做!)


如果您喜歡冒險,可以將Scala和Java混合使用,最後得到:

scala.io.Source.fromInputStream(is).mkString("")

混合Java和Scala代碼和庫有它的好處。

請在此處查看完整描述:在Scala中將InputStream轉換為String的慣用方法


我在這裡做了14個不同答案的基準測試(很抱歉沒有提供學分但有太多重複)

結果非常令人驚訝。事實證明,Apache IOUtils是最慢的,ByteArrayOutputStream也是最快的解決方案:

所以首先這裡是最好的方法:

public String inputStreamToString(InputStream inputStream) throws IOException {
    try(ByteArrayOutputStream result = new ByteArrayOutputStream()) {
        byte[] buffer = new byte[1024];
        int length;
        while ((length = inputStream.read(buffer)) != -1) {
            result.write(buffer, 0, length);
        }

        return result.toString(UTF_8);
    }
}

基準測試結果,20個週期內20MB隨機字節

時間(以毫秒為單位)

  • ByteArrayOutputStreamTest:194
  • NioStream:198
  • Java9ISTransferTo:201
  • Java9ISReadAllBytes:205
  • BufferedInputStreamVsByteArrayOutputStream:314
  • ApacheStringWriter2:574
  • GuavaCharStreams:589
  • ScannerReaderNoNextTest:614
  • ScannerReader:633
  • ApacheStringWriter:1544
  • StreamApi:錯誤
  • ParallelStreamApi:錯誤
  • BufferReaderTest:錯誤
  • InputStreamAndStringBuilder:錯誤

基準源代碼

import com.google.common.io.CharStreams;
import org.apache.commons.io.IOUtils;

import java.io.*;
import java.nio.ByteBuffer;
import java.nio.channels.Channels;
import java.nio.channels.ReadableByteChannel;
import java.nio.channels.WritableByteChannel;
import java.util.Arrays;
import java.util.List;
import java.util.Random;
import java.util.stream.Collectors;

/**
 * Created by Ilya Gazman on 2/13/18.
 */
public class InputStreamToString {


    private static final String UTF_8 = "UTF-8";

    public static void main(String... args) {
        log("App started");
        byte[] bytes = new byte[1024 * 1024];
        new Random().nextBytes(bytes);
        log("Stream is ready\n");

        try {
            test(bytes);
        } catch (IOException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
    }

    private static void test(byte[] bytes) throws IOException {
        List<Stringify> tests = Arrays.asList(
                new ApacheStringWriter(),
                new ApacheStringWriter2(),
                new NioStream(),
                new ScannerReader(),
                new ScannerReaderNoNextTest(),
                new GuavaCharStreams(),
                new StreamApi(),
                new ParallelStreamApi(),
                new ByteArrayOutputStreamTest(),
                new BufferReaderTest(),
                new BufferedInputStreamVsByteArrayOutputStream(),
                new InputStreamAndStringBuilder(),
                new Java9ISTransferTo(),
                new Java9ISReadAllBytes()
        );

        String solution = new String(bytes, "UTF-8");

        for (Stringify test : tests) {
            try (ByteArrayInputStream inputStream = new ByteArrayInputStream(bytes)) {
                String s = test.inputStreamToString(inputStream);
                if (!s.equals(solution)) {
                    log(test.name() + ": Error");
                    continue;
                }
            }
            long startTime = System.currentTimeMillis();
            for (int i = 0; i < 20; i++) {
                try (ByteArrayInputStream inputStream = new ByteArrayInputStream(bytes)) {
                    test.inputStreamToString(inputStream);
                }
            }
            log(test.name() + ": " + (System.currentTimeMillis() - startTime));
        }
    }

    private static void log(String message) {
        System.out.println(message);
    }

    interface Stringify {
        String inputStreamToString(InputStream inputStream) throws IOException;

        default String name() {
            return this.getClass().getSimpleName();
        }
    }

    static class ApacheStringWriter implements Stringify {

        @Override
        public String inputStreamToString(InputStream inputStream) throws IOException {
            StringWriter writer = new StringWriter();
            IOUtils.copy(inputStream, writer, UTF_8);
            return writer.toString();
        }
    }

    static class ApacheStringWriter2 implements Stringify {

        @Override
        public String inputStreamToString(InputStream inputStream) throws IOException {
            return IOUtils.toString(inputStream, UTF_8);
        }
    }

    static class NioStream implements Stringify {

        @Override
        public String inputStreamToString(InputStream in) throws IOException {
            ReadableByteChannel channel = Channels.newChannel(in);
            ByteBuffer byteBuffer = ByteBuffer.allocate(1024 * 16);
            ByteArrayOutputStream bout = new ByteArrayOutputStream();
            WritableByteChannel outChannel = Channels.newChannel(bout);
            while (channel.read(byteBuffer) > 0 || byteBuffer.position() > 0) {
                byteBuffer.flip();  //make buffer ready for write
                outChannel.write(byteBuffer);
                byteBuffer.compact(); //make buffer ready for reading
            }
            channel.close();
            outChannel.close();
            return bout.toString(UTF_8);
        }
    }

    static class ScannerReader implements Stringify {

        @Override
        public String inputStreamToString(InputStream is) throws IOException {
            java.util.Scanner s = new java.util.Scanner(is).useDelimiter("\\A");
            return s.hasNext() ? s.next() : "";
        }
    }

    static class ScannerReaderNoNextTest implements Stringify {

        @Override
        public String inputStreamToString(InputStream is) throws IOException {
            java.util.Scanner s = new java.util.Scanner(is).useDelimiter("\\A");
            return s.next();
        }
    }

    static class GuavaCharStreams implements Stringify {

        @Override
        public String inputStreamToString(InputStream is) throws IOException {
            return CharStreams.toString(new InputStreamReader(
                    is, UTF_8));
        }
    }

    static class StreamApi implements Stringify {

        @Override
        public String inputStreamToString(InputStream inputStream) throws IOException {
            return new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(inputStream))
                    .lines().collect(Collectors.joining("\n"));
        }
    }

    static class ParallelStreamApi implements Stringify {

        @Override
        public String inputStreamToString(InputStream inputStream) throws IOException {
            return new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(inputStream)).lines()
                    .parallel().collect(Collectors.joining("\n"));
        }
    }

    static class ByteArrayOutputStreamTest implements Stringify {

        @Override
        public String inputStreamToString(InputStream inputStream) throws IOException {
            try(ByteArrayOutputStream result = new ByteArrayOutputStream()) {
                byte[] buffer = new byte[1024];
                int length;
                while ((length = inputStream.read(buffer)) != -1) {
                    result.write(buffer, 0, length);
                }

                return result.toString(UTF_8);
            }
        }
    }

    static class BufferReaderTest implements Stringify {

        @Override
        public String inputStreamToString(InputStream inputStream) throws IOException {
            String newLine = System.getProperty("line.separator");
            BufferedReader reader = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(inputStream));
            StringBuilder result = new StringBuilder(UTF_8);
            String line;
            boolean flag = false;
            while ((line = reader.readLine()) != null) {
                result.append(flag ? newLine : "").append(line);
                flag = true;
            }
            return result.toString();
        }
    }

    static class BufferedInputStreamVsByteArrayOutputStream implements Stringify {

        @Override
        public String inputStreamToString(InputStream inputStream) throws IOException {
            BufferedInputStream bis = new BufferedInputStream(inputStream);
            ByteArrayOutputStream buf = new ByteArrayOutputStream();
            int result = bis.read();
            while (result != -1) {
                buf.write((byte) result);
                result = bis.read();
            }

            return buf.toString(UTF_8);
        }
    }

    static class InputStreamAndStringBuilder implements Stringify {

        @Override
        public String inputStreamToString(InputStream inputStream) throws IOException {
            int ch;
            StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder(UTF_8);
            while ((ch = inputStream.read()) != -1)
                sb.append((char) ch);
            return sb.toString();
        }
    }

    static class Java9ISTransferTo implements Stringify {

        @Override
        public String inputStreamToString(InputStream inputStream) throws IOException {
            ByteArrayOutputStream bos = new ByteArrayOutputStream();
            inputStream.transferTo(bos);
            return bos.toString(UTF_8);
        }
    }

    static class Java9ISReadAllBytes implements Stringify {

        @Override
        public String inputStreamToString(InputStream inputStream) throws IOException {
            return new String(inputStream.readAllBytes(), UTF_8);
        }
    }

}

我會使用一些Java 8技巧。

public static String streamToString(final InputStream inputStream) throws Exception {
    // buffering optional
    try
    (
        final BufferedReader br
           = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(inputStream))
    ) {
        // parallel optional
        return br.lines().parallel().collect(Collectors.joining("\n"));
    } catch (final IOException e) {
        throw new RuntimeException(e);
        // whatever.
    }
}

基本上和其他一些答案一樣,除了更簡潔。


為了完整起見,這裡是Java 9解決方案:

public static String toString(InputStream input) throws IOException {
    return new String(input.readAllBytes(), StandardCharsets.UTF_8);
}

readAllBytes目前在JDK 9主代碼庫中,因此很可能出現在發行版中。 您可以使用JDK 9快照構建立即嘗試。


總結其他答案我找到了11種主要方法(見下文)。 我寫了一些性能測試(見下面的結果):

將InputStream轉換為String的方法:

  1. 使用IOUtils.toString (Apache Utils)

    String result = IOUtils.toString(inputStream, StandardCharsets.UTF_8);
    
  2. 使用CharStreams (番石榴)

    String result = CharStreams.toString(new InputStreamReader(
          inputStream, Charsets.UTF_8));
    
  3. 使用Scanner (JDK)

    Scanner s = new Scanner(inputStream).useDelimiter("\\A");
    String result = s.hasNext() ? s.next() : "";
    
  4. 使用Stream API (Java 8)。 警告 :此解決方案將不同的換行符(如\r\n )轉換為\n

    String result = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(inputStream))
      .lines().collect(Collectors.joining("\n"));
    
  5. 使用並行Stream API (Java 8)。 警告 :此解決方案將不同的換行符(如\r\n )轉換為\n

    String result = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(inputStream)).lines()
       .parallel().collect(Collectors.joining("\n"));
    
  6. 使用InputStreamReaderStringBuilder (JDK)

    final int bufferSize = 1024;
    final char[] buffer = new char[bufferSize];
    final StringBuilder out = new StringBuilder();
    Reader in = new InputStreamReader(inputStream, "UTF-8");
    for (; ; ) {
        int rsz = in.read(buffer, 0, buffer.length);
        if (rsz < 0)
            break;
        out.append(buffer, 0, rsz);
    }
    return out.toString();
    
  7. 使用StringWriterIOUtils.copy (Apache Commons)

    StringWriter writer = new StringWriter();
    IOUtils.copy(inputStream, writer, "UTF-8");
    return writer.toString();
    
  8. 使用ByteArrayOutputStreaminputStream.read (JDK)

    ByteArrayOutputStream result = new ByteArrayOutputStream();
    byte[] buffer = new byte[1024];
    int length;
    while ((length = inputStream.read(buffer)) != -1) {
        result.write(buffer, 0, length);
    }
    // StandardCharsets.UTF_8.name() > JDK 7
    return result.toString("UTF-8");
    
  9. 使用BufferedReader (JDK)。 警告:此解決方案將不同的換行符(如\n\r )轉換為line.separator系統屬性(例如,在Windows中為“\ r \ n”)。

    String newLine = System.getProperty("line.separator");
    BufferedReader reader = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(inputStream));
    StringBuilder result = new StringBuilder();
    boolean flag = false;
    for (String line; (line = reader.readLine()) != null; ) {
        result.append(flag? newLine: "").append(line);
        flag = true;
    }
    return result.toString();
    
  10. 使用BufferedInputStreamByteArrayOutputStream (JDK)

    BufferedInputStream bis = new BufferedInputStream(inputStream);
    ByteArrayOutputStream buf = new ByteArrayOutputStream();
    int result = bis.read();
    while(result != -1) {
        buf.write((byte) result);
        result = bis.read();
    }
    // StandardCharsets.UTF_8.name() > JDK 7
    return buf.toString("UTF-8");
    
  11. 使用inputStream.read()StringBuilder (JDK)。 警告 :此解決方案存在Unicode問題,例如使用俄語文本(僅適用於非Unicode文本)

    int ch;
    StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder();
    while((ch = inputStream.read()) != -1)
        sb.append((char)ch);
    reset();
    return sb.toString();
    

警告

  1. 解決方案4,5和9將不同的換行符轉換為1。

  2. 解決方案11無法與Unicode文本一起正常工作

性能測試

String (長度= 175)的性能測試, github url(模式=平均時間,系統= Linux,得分1,343是最好的):

              Benchmark                         Mode  Cnt   Score   Error  Units
 8. ByteArrayOutputStream and read (JDK)        avgt   10   1,343 ± 0,028  us/op
 6. InputStreamReader and StringBuilder (JDK)   avgt   10   6,980 ± 0,404  us/op
10. BufferedInputStream, ByteArrayOutputStream  avgt   10   7,437 ± 0,735  us/op
11. InputStream.read() and StringBuilder (JDK)  avgt   10   8,977 ± 0,328  us/op
 7. StringWriter and IOUtils.copy (Apache)      avgt   10  10,613 ± 0,599  us/op
 1. IOUtils.toString (Apache Utils)             avgt   10  10,605 ± 0,527  us/op
 3. Scanner (JDK)                               avgt   10  12,083 ± 0,293  us/op
 2. CharStreams (guava)                         avgt   10  12,999 ± 0,514  us/op
 4. Stream Api (Java 8)                         avgt   10  15,811 ± 0,605  us/op
 9. BufferedReader (JDK)                        avgt   10  16,038 ± 0,711  us/op
 5. parallel Stream Api (Java 8)                avgt   10  21,544 ± 0,583  us/op

String (長度= 50100)的性能測試, github url(模式=平均時間,系統= Linux,得分200,715是最好的):

               Benchmark                        Mode  Cnt   Score        Error  Units
 8. ByteArrayOutputStream and read (JDK)        avgt   10   200,715 ±   18,103  us/op
 1. IOUtils.toString (Apache Utils)             avgt   10   300,019 ±    8,751  us/op
 6. InputStreamReader and StringBuilder (JDK)   avgt   10   347,616 ±  130,348  us/op
 7. StringWriter and IOUtils.copy (Apache)      avgt   10   352,791 ±  105,337  us/op
 2. CharStreams (guava)                         avgt   10   420,137 ±   59,877  us/op
 9. BufferedReader (JDK)                        avgt   10   632,028 ±   17,002  us/op
 5. parallel Stream Api (Java 8)                avgt   10   662,999 ±   46,199  us/op
 4. Stream Api (Java 8)                         avgt   10   701,269 ±   82,296  us/op
10. BufferedInputStream, ByteArrayOutputStream  avgt   10   740,837 ±    5,613  us/op
 3. Scanner (JDK)                               avgt   10   751,417 ±   62,026  us/op
11. InputStream.read() and StringBuilder (JDK)  avgt   10  2919,350 ± 1101,942  us/op

圖表(性能測試取決於Windows 7系統中的輸入流長度)

性能測試(平均時間)取決於Windows 7系統中的輸入流長度:

 length  182    546     1092    3276    9828    29484   58968

 test8  0.38    0.938   1.868   4.448   13.412  36.459  72.708
 test4  2.362   3.609   5.573   12.769  40.74   81.415  159.864
 test5  3.881   5.075   6.904   14.123  50.258  129.937 166.162
 test9  2.237   3.493   5.422   11.977  45.98   89.336  177.39
 test6  1.261   2.12    4.38    10.698  31.821  86.106  186.636
 test7  1.601   2.391   3.646   8.367   38.196  110.221 211.016
 test1  1.529   2.381   3.527   8.411   40.551  105.16  212.573
 test3  3.035   3.934   8.606   20.858  61.571  118.744 235.428
 test2  3.136   6.238   10.508  33.48   43.532  118.044 239.481
 test10 1.593   4.736   7.527   20.557  59.856  162.907 323.147
 test11 3.913   11.506  23.26   68.644  207.591 600.444 1211.545

這個很好,因為:

  • Charset的手安全。
  • 您可以控制讀取緩衝區大小。
  • 您可以設置構建器的長度,但可能不完全相同。
  • 沒有庫依賴項。
  • 適用於Java 7或更高版本。

這是為了什麼?

public static String convertStreamToString(InputStream is) {
   if (is == null) return null;
   StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder(2048); // Define a size if you have an idea of it.
   char[] read = new char[128]; // Your buffer size.
   try (InputStreamReader ir = new InputStreamReader(is, StandardCharsets.UTF_8)) {
     for (int i; -1 != (i = ir.read(read)); sb.append(read, 0, i));
   } catch (Throwable t) {}
   return sb.toString();
}

這個怎麼樣?

InputStream in = /* your InputStream */;
StringBuilder sb=new StringBuilder();
BufferedReader br = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(in));
String read;

while((read=br.readLine()) != null) {
    //System.out.println(read);
    sb.append(read);   
}

br.close();
return sb.toString();

這是我在經過一些實驗後想出的最優雅的純Java(無庫)解決方案:

public static String fromStream(InputStream in) throws IOException
{
    BufferedReader reader = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(in));
    StringBuilder out = new StringBuilder();
    String newLine = System.getProperty("line.separator");
    String line;
    while ((line = reader.readLine()) != null) {
        out.append(line);
        out.append(newLine);
    }
    return out.toString();
}

這是我的純Java和Android解決方案,效果很好......

public String readFullyAsString(InputStream inputStream, String encoding)
        throws IOException {
    return readFully(inputStream).toString(encoding);
}    

public byte[] readFullyAsBytes(InputStream inputStream)
        throws IOException {
    return readFully(inputStream).toByteArray();
}    

private ByteArrayOutputStream readFully(InputStream inputStream)
        throws IOException {
    ByteArrayOutputStream baos = new ByteArrayOutputStream();
    byte[] buffer = new byte[1024];
    int length = 0;
    while ((length = inputStream.read(buffer)) != -1) {
        baos.write(buffer, 0, length);
    }
    return baos;
}

以下是使用字節數組緩衝區僅使用JDK的方法。這實際上是commons-io IOUtils.copy()方法的工作原理。您可以替換byte[]使用char[],如果你從一個拷貝Reader,而不是一個InputStream

import java.io.ByteArrayOutputStream;
import java.io.InputStream;

...

InputStream is = ....
ByteArrayOutputStream baos = new ByteArrayOutputStream(8192);
byte[] buffer = new byte[8192];
int count = 0;
try {
  while ((count = is.read(buffer)) != -1) {
    baos.write(buffer, 0, count);
  }
}
finally {
  try {
    is.close();
  }
  catch (Exception ignore) {
  }
}

String charset = "UTF-8";
String inputStreamAsString = baos.toString(charset);


這是一個改編自org.apache.commons.io.IOUtils 源代碼的答案,適用於那些想要實現apache但不想要整個庫的人。

private static final int BUFFER_SIZE = 4 * 1024;

public static String inputStreamToString(InputStream inputStream, String charsetName)
        throws IOException {
    StringBuilder builder = new StringBuilder();
    InputStreamReader reader = new InputStreamReader(inputStream, charsetName);
    char[] buffer = new char[BUFFER_SIZE];
    int length;
    while ((length = reader.read(buffer)) != -1) {
        builder.append(buffer, 0, length);
    }
    return builder.toString();
}

這是在不使用任何第三方庫的情況下轉換InputStream為完整的方法String。使用StringBuilder單線程環境以其它方式使用StringBuffer

public static String getString( InputStream is) throws IOException {
    int ch;
    StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder();
    while((ch = is.read()) != -1)
        sb.append((char)ch);
    return sb.toString();
}




inputstream