python savefig用法 你如何將一個列表分成均勻大小的塊?




python折線圖 (24)

我有一個任意長度的列表,我需要將它分成相同大小的塊並對其進行操作。 有一些明顯的方法可以做到這一點,比如保留一個計數器和兩個列表,當第二個列表填滿時,將其添加到第一個列表並清空下一輪數據的第二個列表,但這可能非常昂貴。

我想知道是否有人對任何長度的列表都有很好的解決方法,例如使用生成器。

我在itertools中尋找一些有用的東西,但是我找不到任何明顯有用的東西。 雖然可能錯過了它。

相關問題: 什麼是在塊中迭代列表的最“pythonic”方法?


如果你知道名單大小:

def SplitList(list, chunk_size):
    return [list[offs:offs+chunk_size] for offs in range(0, len(list), chunk_size)]

如果你不(迭代器):

def IterChunks(sequence, chunk_size):
    res = []
    for item in sequence:
        res.append(item)
        if len(res) >= chunk_size:
            yield res
            res = []
    if res:
        yield res  # yield the last, incomplete, portion

在後一種情況下,如果您可以確定序列始終包含整數給定大小的塊(即,沒有不完整的最後一塊),則可以用更美觀的方式對其進行修改。


我喜歡tzot和JFSebastian提出的Python文檔版本,但它有兩個缺點:

  • 它不是很明確
  • 我通常不需要最後一個塊的填充值

我在我的代碼中使用了很多:

from itertools import islice

def chunks(n, iterable):
    iterable = iter(iterable)
    while True:
        yield tuple(islice(iterable, n)) or iterable.next()

更新:一個懶塊版本:

from itertools import chain, islice

def chunks(n, iterable):
   iterable = iter(iterable)
   while True:
       yield chain([next(iterable)], islice(iterable, n-1))


您也可以使用utilspie庫的get_chunks函數:

>>> from utilspie import iterutils
>>> a = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9]

>>> list(iterutils.get_chunks(a, 5))
[[1, 2, 3, 4, 5], [6, 7, 8, 9]]

您可以通過pip安裝utilspie

sudo pip install utilspie

免責聲明:我是utilspie庫的創建者


另一個更明確的版本。

def chunkList(initialList, chunkSize):
    """
    This function chunks a list into sub lists 
    that have a length equals to chunkSize.

    Example:
    lst = [3, 4, 9, 7, 1, 1, 2, 3]
    print(chunkList(lst, 3)) 
    returns
    [[3, 4, 9], [7, 1, 1], [2, 3]]
    """
    finalList = []
    for i in range(0, len(initialList), chunkSize):
        finalList.append(initialList[i:i+chunkSize])
    return finalList

def chunks(iterable,n):
    """assumes n is an integer>0
    """
    iterable=iter(iterable)
    while True:
        result=[]
        for i in range(n):
            try:
                a=next(iterable)
            except StopIteration:
                break
            else:
                result.append(a)
        if result:
            yield result
        else:
            break

g1=(i*i for i in range(10))
g2=chunks(g1,3)
print g2
'<generator object chunks at 0x0337B9B8>'
print list(g2)
'[[0, 1, 4], [9, 16, 25], [36, 49, 64], [81]]'

a = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9]
CHUNK = 4
[a[i*CHUNK:(i+1)*CHUNK] for i in xrange((len(a) + CHUNK - 1) / CHUNK )]

我很驚訝沒有人想過使用iter雙參數形式

from itertools import islice

def chunk(it, size):
    it = iter(it)
    return iter(lambda: tuple(islice(it, size)), ())

演示:

>>> list(chunk(range(14), 3))
[(0, 1, 2), (3, 4, 5), (6, 7, 8), (9, 10, 11), (12, 13)]

這適用於任何迭代,並產生輸出懶洋洋。 它返回元組而不是迭代器,但我認為它有一定的優雅。 它也沒有墊; 如果你想填充,上面的一個簡單的變化就足夠了:

from itertools import islice, chain, repeat

def chunk_pad(it, size, padval=None):
    it = chain(iter(it), repeat(padval))
    return iter(lambda: tuple(islice(it, size)), (padval,) * size)

演示:

>>> list(chunk_pad(range(14), 3))
[(0, 1, 2), (3, 4, 5), (6, 7, 8), (9, 10, 11), (12, 13, None)]
>>> list(chunk_pad(range(14), 3, 'a'))
[(0, 1, 2), (3, 4, 5), (6, 7, 8), (9, 10, 11), (12, 13, 'a')]

就像基於izip_longest的解決方案一樣,上面總是提到。 據我所知,沒有一行或兩行itertools配方可以選擇填充功能。 通過結合上述兩種方法,這個方法非常接近:

_no_padding = object()

def chunk(it, size, padval=_no_padding):
    if padval == _no_padding:
        it = iter(it)
        sentinel = ()
    else:
        it = chain(iter(it), repeat(padval))
        sentinel = (padval,) * size
    return iter(lambda: tuple(islice(it, size)), sentinel)

演示:

>>> list(chunk(range(14), 3))
[(0, 1, 2), (3, 4, 5), (6, 7, 8), (9, 10, 11), (12, 13)]
>>> list(chunk(range(14), 3, None))
[(0, 1, 2), (3, 4, 5), (6, 7, 8), (9, 10, 11), (12, 13, None)]
>>> list(chunk(range(14), 3, 'a'))
[(0, 1, 2), (3, 4, 5), (6, 7, 8), (9, 10, 11), (12, 13, 'a')]

我相信這是最短的提議,提供可選填充。


對其他答案的批評在這裡:

這些答案都不是大小均勻的大塊,它們都在最後留下一塊大塊,所以它們不是完全平衡的。 如果您正在使用這些功能來分配工作,那麼您已經建立了一個可能完成其他任務的前景,所以它將圍繞無所事事而其他人繼續努力工作。

例如,當前最高回答結束於:

[60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69],
[70, 71, 72, 73, 74]]

我只是最後恨那個矮人!

其他像list(grouper(3, xrange(7)))chunk(xrange(7), 3)都返回: [(0, 1, 2), (3, 4, 5), (6, None, None)]None的只是填充,而在我看來,卻不那麼粗俗。 他們並不是均勻地分塊迭代。

為什麼我們不能把它們分得更好?

我的解決方案(s)

這裡有一個平衡的解決方案,根據我在生產中使用的函數進行調整(在Python 3中用range替換xrange ):

def baskets_from(items, maxbaskets=25):
    baskets = [[] for _ in xrange(maxbaskets)] # in Python 3 use range
    for i, item in enumerate(items):
        baskets[i % maxbaskets].append(item)
    return filter(None, baskets) 

而且我創建了一個生成器,如果將它放入列表中,它的功能相同:

def iter_baskets_from(items, maxbaskets=3):
    '''generates evenly balanced baskets from indexable iterable'''
    item_count = len(items)
    baskets = min(item_count, maxbaskets)
    for x_i in xrange(baskets):
        yield [items[y_i] for y_i in xrange(x_i, item_count, baskets)]

最後,因為我看到所有上述函數都以連續的順序返回元素(如他們所給出的):

def iter_baskets_contiguous(items, maxbaskets=3, item_count=None):
    '''
    generates balanced baskets from iterable, contiguous contents
    provide item_count if providing a iterator that doesn't support len()
    '''
    item_count = item_count or len(items)
    baskets = min(item_count, maxbaskets)
    items = iter(items)
    floor = item_count // baskets 
    ceiling = floor + 1
    stepdown = item_count % baskets
    for x_i in xrange(baskets):
        length = ceiling if x_i < stepdown else floor
        yield [items.next() for _ in xrange(length)]

產量

要測試它們:

print(baskets_from(xrange(6), 8))
print(list(iter_baskets_from(xrange(6), 8)))
print(list(iter_baskets_contiguous(xrange(6), 8)))
print(baskets_from(xrange(22), 8))
print(list(iter_baskets_from(xrange(22), 8)))
print(list(iter_baskets_contiguous(xrange(22), 8)))
print(baskets_from('ABCDEFG', 3))
print(list(iter_baskets_from('ABCDEFG', 3)))
print(list(iter_baskets_contiguous('ABCDEFG', 3)))
print(baskets_from(xrange(26), 5))
print(list(iter_baskets_from(xrange(26), 5)))
print(list(iter_baskets_contiguous(xrange(26), 5)))

打印出來:

[[0], [1], [2], [3], [4], [5]]
[[0], [1], [2], [3], [4], [5]]
[[0], [1], [2], [3], [4], [5]]
[[0, 8, 16], [1, 9, 17], [2, 10, 18], [3, 11, 19], [4, 12, 20], [5, 13, 21], [6, 14], [7, 15]]
[[0, 8, 16], [1, 9, 17], [2, 10, 18], [3, 11, 19], [4, 12, 20], [5, 13, 21], [6, 14], [7, 15]]
[[0, 1, 2], [3, 4, 5], [6, 7, 8], [9, 10, 11], [12, 13, 14], [15, 16, 17], [18, 19], [20, 21]]
[['A', 'D', 'G'], ['B', 'E'], ['C', 'F']]
[['A', 'D', 'G'], ['B', 'E'], ['C', 'F']]
[['A', 'B', 'C'], ['D', 'E'], ['F', 'G']]
[[0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25], [1, 6, 11, 16, 21], [2, 7, 12, 17, 22], [3, 8, 13, 18, 23], [4, 9, 14, 19, 24]]
[[0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25], [1, 6, 11, 16, 21], [2, 7, 12, 17, 22], [3, 8, 13, 18, 23], [4, 9, 14, 19, 24]]
[[0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5], [6, 7, 8, 9, 10], [11, 12, 13, 14, 15], [16, 17, 18, 19, 20], [21, 22, 23, 24, 25]]

請注意,連續的生成器提供與其他兩個長度相同的塊,但項目全部按順序排列,並且它們被均勻分割,因為可以將一組離散元素分開。


沒有調用len()對於大型列表很有用:

def splitter(l, n):
    i = 0
    chunk = l[:n]
    while chunk:
        yield chunk
        i += n
        chunk = l[i:i+n]

這是為了迭代:

def isplitter(l, n):
    l = iter(l)
    chunk = list(islice(l, n))
    while chunk:
        yield chunk
        chunk = list(islice(l, n))

以上的功能性風味:

def isplitter2(l, n):
    return takewhile(bool,
                     (tuple(islice(start, n))
                            for start in repeat(iter(l))))

要么:

def chunks_gen_sentinel(n, seq):
    continuous_slices = imap(islice, repeat(iter(seq)), repeat(0), repeat(n))
    return iter(imap(tuple, continuous_slices).next,())

要么:

def chunks_gen_filter(n, seq):
    continuous_slices = imap(islice, repeat(iter(seq)), repeat(0), repeat(n))
    return takewhile(bool,imap(tuple, continuous_slices))

這是一個可以在任意迭代器上工作的生成器:

def split_seq(iterable, size):
    it = iter(iterable)
    item = list(itertools.islice(it, size))
    while item:
        yield item
        item = list(itertools.islice(it, size))

例:

>>> import pprint
>>> pprint.pprint(list(split_seq(xrange(75), 10)))
[[0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9],
 [10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19],
 [20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29],
 [30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39],
 [40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49],
 [50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59],
 [60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69],
 [70, 71, 72, 73, 74]]

def split_seq(seq, num_pieces):
    start = 0
    for i in xrange(num_pieces):
        stop = start + len(seq[i::num_pieces])
        yield seq[start:stop]
        start = stop

用法:

seq = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10]

for seq in split_seq(seq, 3):
    print seq

碼:

def split_list(the_list, chunk_size):
    result_list = []
    while the_list:
        result_list.append(the_list[:chunk_size])
        the_list = the_list[chunk_size:]
    return result_list

a_list = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10]

print split_list(a_list, 3)

結果:

[[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6], [7, 8, 9], [10]]

直接從(舊)Python文檔(itertools的配方):

from itertools import izip, chain, repeat

def grouper(n, iterable, padvalue=None):
    "grouper(3, 'abcdefg', 'x') --> ('a','b','c'), ('d','e','f'), ('g','x','x')"
    return izip(*[chain(iterable, repeat(padvalue, n-1))]*n)

正如JFSebastian所建議的那樣:

#from itertools import izip_longest as zip_longest # for Python 2.x
from itertools import zip_longest # for Python 3.x
#from six.moves import zip_longest # for both (uses the six compat library)

def grouper(n, iterable, padvalue=None):
    "grouper(3, 'abcdefg', 'x') --> ('a','b','c'), ('d','e','f'), ('g','x','x')"
    return zip_longest(*[iter(iterable)]*n, fillvalue=padvalue)

我想圭多的時間機器工作 - 工作 - 將工作 - 將工作 - 再次工作。

這些解決方案可以工作,因為[iter(iterable)]*n (或早期版本中的等價物)創建一個迭代器,在列表中重複n次。 izip_longest然後有效地執行“每個”迭代器的循環; 因為這是相同的迭代器,所以每次這樣的調用都會提前進行處理,從而導致每個這樣的zip-roundrobin生成一個n項的元組。


def chunk(input, size):
    return map(None, *([iter(input)] * size))

嘿,一行版本

In [48]: chunk = lambda ulist, step:  map(lambda i: ulist[i:i+step],  xrange(0, len(ulist), step))

In [49]: chunk(range(1,100), 10)
Out[49]: 
[[1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10],
 [11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20],
 [21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30],
 [31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40],
 [41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50],
 [51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60],
 [61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70],
 [71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80],
 [81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90],
 [91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99]]

在這一點上,我認為我們需要一個遞歸生成器 ,以防萬一......

在python 2中:

def chunks(li, n):
    if li == []:
        return
    yield li[:n]
    for e in chunks(li[n:], n):
        yield e

在python 3中:

def chunks(li, n):
    if li == []:
        return
    yield li[:n]
    yield from chunks(li[n:], n)

此外,如果有大規模的外星人入侵, 裝飾的遞歸發生器可能會變得非常方便:

def dec(gen):
    def new_gen(li, n):
        for e in gen(li, n):
            if e == []:
                return
            yield e
    return new_gen

@dec
def chunks(li, n):
    yield li[:n]
    for e in chunks(li[n:], n):
        yield e

我知道這有點古老,但我不明白為什麼沒有人提到numpy.array_split

lst = range(50)
In [26]: np.array_split(lst,5)
Out[26]: 
[array([0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9]),
 array([10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19]),
 array([20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29]),
 array([30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39]),
 array([40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49])]

我在這個問題的duplicate中看到了最令人敬畏的Python-ish答案:

from itertools import zip_longest

a = range(1, 16)
i = iter(a)
r = list(zip_longest(i, i, i))
>>> print(r)
[(1, 2, 3), (4, 5, 6), (7, 8, 9), (10, 11, 12), (13, 14, 15)]

你可以為任何n創建n元組。 如果a = range(1, 15) ,那麼結果將是:

[(1, 2, 3), (4, 5, 6), (7, 8, 9), (10, 11, 12), (13, 14, None)]

如果列表被平均分配,則可以用zip替換zip_longest ,否則三元組(13, 14, None)將會丟失。 上面使用了Python 3。 對於Python 2,請使用izip_longest


[AA[i:i+SS] for i in range(len(AA))[::SS]]

在AA是陣列的情況下,SS是塊大小。 例如:

>>> AA=range(10,21);SS=3
>>> [AA[i:i+SS] for i in range(len(AA))[::SS]]
[[10, 11, 12], [13, 14, 15], [16, 17, 18], [19, 20]]
# or [range(10, 13), range(13, 16), range(16, 19), range(19, 21)] in py3

See this reference

>>> orange = range(1, 1001)
>>> otuples = list( zip(*[iter(orange)]*10))
>>> print(otuples)
[(1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10), ... (991, 992, 993, 994, 995, 996, 997, 998, 999, 1000)]
>>> olist = [list(i) for i in otuples]
>>> print(olist)
[[1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10], ..., [991, 992, 993, 994, 995, 996, 997, 998, 999, 1000]]
>>> 

Python3


如果你想要超級簡單的東西:

def chunks(l, n):
    n = max(1, n)
    return (l[i:i+n] for i in xrange(0, len(l), n))

考慮使用matplotlib.cbook作品

例如:

import matplotlib.cbook as cbook
segments = cbook.pieces(np.arange(20), 3)
for s in segments:
     print s

我很好奇不同方法的表現,這裡是:

在Python 3.5.1上測試

import time
batch_size = 7
arr_len = 298937

#---------slice-------------

print("\r\nslice")
start = time.time()
arr = [i for i in range(0, arr_len)]
while True:
    if not arr:
        break

    tmp = arr[0:batch_size]
    arr = arr[batch_size:-1]
print(time.time() - start)

#-----------index-----------

print("\r\nindex")
arr = [i for i in range(0, arr_len)]
start = time.time()
for i in range(0, round(len(arr) / batch_size + 1)):
    tmp = arr[batch_size * i : batch_size * (i + 1)]
print(time.time() - start)

#----------batches 1------------

def batch(iterable, n=1):
    l = len(iterable)
    for ndx in range(0, l, n):
        yield iterable[ndx:min(ndx + n, l)]

print("\r\nbatches 1")
arr = [i for i in range(0, arr_len)]
start = time.time()
for x in batch(arr, batch_size):
    tmp = x
print(time.time() - start)

#----------batches 2------------

from itertools import islice, chain

def batch(iterable, size):
    sourceiter = iter(iterable)
    while True:
        batchiter = islice(sourceiter, size)
        yield chain([next(batchiter)], batchiter)


print("\r\nbatches 2")
arr = [i for i in range(0, arr_len)]
start = time.time()
for x in batch(arr, batch_size):
    tmp = x
print(time.time() - start)

#---------chunks-------------
def chunks(l, n):
    """Yield successive n-sized chunks from l."""
    for i in range(0, len(l), n):
        yield l[i:i + n]
print("\r\nchunks")
arr = [i for i in range(0, arr_len)]
start = time.time()
for x in chunks(arr, batch_size):
    tmp = x
print(time.time() - start)

#-----------grouper-----------

from itertools import zip_longest # for Python 3.x
#from six.moves import zip_longest # for both (uses the six compat library)

def grouper(iterable, n, padvalue=None):
    "grouper(3, 'abcdefg', 'x') --> ('a','b','c'), ('d','e','f'), ('g','x','x')"
    return zip_longest(*[iter(iterable)]*n, fillvalue=padvalue)

arr = [i for i in range(0, arr_len)]
print("\r\ngrouper")
start = time.time()
for x in grouper(arr, batch_size):
    tmp = x
print(time.time() - start)

結果:

slice
31.18285083770752

index
0.02184295654296875

batches 1
0.03503894805908203

batches 2
0.22681021690368652

chunks
0.019841909408569336

grouper
0.006506919860839844






chunks