android - windownotitle - 用數據庫發送應用程序




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如果您的應用程序需要一個數據庫並且內置數據,那麼運送該應用程序的最佳方式是什麼? 我是不是該:

  1. 預先創建SQLite數據庫並將其包含在.apk

  2. 在應用程序中包含SQL命令並讓它創建數據庫並在第一次使用時插入數據?

我看到的缺點是:

  1. 可能的SQLite版本不匹配可能會導致問題,我目前不知道數據庫應該在哪里以及如何訪問它。

  2. 在設備上創建和填充數據庫可能需要很長時間。

有什麼建議麼? 指向任何問題的文檔將不勝感激。


Shipping the app with a database file, in Android Studio 3.0

Shipping the app with a database file is a good idea for me. The advantage is that you don't need to do a complex initialization, which sometimes costs lots of time, if your data set is huge.

Step 1: Prepare database file

Have your database file ready. It can be either a .db file or a .sqlite file. If you use a .sqlite file, all you need to do is to change file extension names. The steps are the same.

In this example, I prepared a file called testDB.db. It has one table and some sample data in it like this

Step 2: Import the file into your project

Create the assets folder if you haven't had one. Then copy and paste the database file into this folder

Step 3: Copy the file to the app's data folder

You need to copy the database file to the app's data folder in order to do further interaction with it. This is a one time action (initialization) to copy the database file. If you call this code multiple times, the database file in data folder will be overwritten by the one in assets folder. This overwrite process is useful when you want to update the database in future during the app update.

Note that during app update, this database file will not be changed in the app's data folder. Only uninstall will delete it.

The database file needs to be copied to /databases folder. Open Device File Explorer. Enter data/data/<YourAppName>/ location. This is the app's default data folder mentioned above. And by default, the database file will be place in another folder called databases under this directory

Now, the copy file process is pretty much like the what Java is doing. Use the following code to do the copy paste. This is the initiation code. It can also be used to update(by overwriting) the database file in future.

//get context by calling "this" in activity or getActivity() in fragment
//call this if API level is lower than 17  String appDataPath = "/data/data/" + context.getPackageName() + "/databases/"
String appDataPath = context.getApplicationInfo().dataDir;

File dbFolder = new File(appDataPath + "/databases");//Make sure the /databases folder exists
dbFolder.mkdir();//This can be called multiple times.

File dbFilePath = new File(appDataPath + "/databases/testDB.db");

try {
    InputStream inputStream = context.getAssets().open("testDB.db");
    OutputStream outputStream = new FileOutputStream(dbFilePath);
    byte[] buffer = new byte[1024];
    int length;
    while ((length = inputStream.read(buffer))>0)
    {
        outputStream.write(buffer, 0, length);
    }
    outputStream.flush();
    outputStream.close();
    inputStream.close();
} catch (IOException e){
    //handle
}

Then refresh the folder to verify the copy process

Step 4: Create database open helper

Create a subclass for SQLiteOpenHelper , with connect, close, path, etc. I named it DatabaseOpenHelper

import android.content.Context;
import android.database.SQLException;
import android.database.sqlite.SQLiteDatabase;
import android.database.sqlite.SQLiteOpenHelper;

public class DatabaseOpenHelper extends SQLiteOpenHelper {
    public static final String DB_NAME = "testDB.db";
    public static final String DB_SUB_PATH = "/databases/" + DB_NAME;
    private static String APP_DATA_PATH = "";
    private SQLiteDatabase dataBase;
    private final Context context;

    public DatabaseOpenHelper(Context context){
        super(context, DB_NAME, null, 1);
        APP_DATA_PATH = context.getApplicationInfo().dataDir;
        this.context = context;
    }

    public boolean openDataBase() throws SQLException{
        String mPath = APP_DATA_PATH + DB_SUB_PATH;
        //Note that this method assumes that the db file is already copied in place
        dataBase = SQLiteDatabase.openDatabase(mPath, null, SQLiteDatabase.OPEN_READWRITE);
        return dataBase != null;
    }

    @Override
    public synchronized void close(){
        if(dataBase != null) {dataBase.close();}
        super.close();
    }

    @Override
    public void onCreate(SQLiteDatabase db) {
    }

    @Override
    public void onUpgrade(SQLiteDatabase db, int oldVersion, int newVersion) {
    }
}

Step 5: Create top level class to interact with the database

This will be the class that read & write your database file. Also there is a sample query to print out the value in the database.

import android.content.Context;
import android.database.Cursor;
import android.database.SQLException;
import android.database.sqlite.SQLiteDatabase;
import android.util.Log;

public class Database {
    private final Context context;
    private SQLiteDatabase database;
    private DatabaseOpenHelper dbHelper;

    public Database(Context context){
        this.context = context;
        dbHelper = new DatabaseOpenHelper(context);
    }

    public Database open() throws SQLException
    {
        dbHelper.openDataBase();
        dbHelper.close();
        database = dbHelper.getReadableDatabase();
        return this;
    }

    public void close()
    {
        dbHelper.close();
    }

    public void test(){
        try{
            String query ="SELECT value FROM test1";
            Cursor cursor = database.rawQuery(query, null);
            if (cursor.moveToFirst()){
                do{
                    String value = cursor.getString(0);
                    Log.d("db", value);
                }while (cursor.moveToNext());
            }
            cursor.close();
        } catch (SQLException e) {
            //handle
        }
    }
}

Step 6: Test running

Test the code by running the following lines of codes.

Database db = new Database(context);
db.open();
db.test();
db.close();

Hit the run button and cheer!


SQLiteAssetHelper庫使得這個任務非常簡單。

添加Gradle依賴很容易(但是Jar也可用於Ant / Eclipse),並且可以在以下位置找到文檔:
github.com/jgilfelt/android-sqlite-asset-helper

正如文件中所解釋的:

  1. 將依賴關係添加到模塊的gradle構建文件中:

    dependencies {
        compile 'com.readystatesoftware.sqliteasset:sqliteassethelper:+'
    }
    
  2. 將數據庫複製到資產目錄中,名為assets/databases的子目錄中。 例如:
    assets/databases/my_database.db

    (或者,您可以將數據庫壓縮到zip文件中,例如assets/databases/my_database.zip 。這不是必需的,因為APK已經作為整體進行了壓縮。)

  3. 創建一個班級,例如:

    public class MyDatabase extends SQLiteAssetHelper {
    
        private static final String DATABASE_NAME = "my_database.db";
        private static final int DATABASE_VERSION = 1;
    
        public MyDatabase(Context context) {
            super(context, DATABASE_NAME, null, DATABASE_VERSION);
        }
    }
    

Android already provides a version-aware approach of database management. This approach has been leveraged in the BARACUS framework for Android applications.

It enables you to manage the database along the entire version lifecycle of an app, beeing able to update the sqlite database from any prior version to the current one.

Also, it allows you to run hot-backups and hot-recovery of the SQLite.

I am not 100% sure, but a hot-recovery for a specific device may enable you to ship a prepared database in your app. But I am not sure about the database binary format which might be specific to certain devices, vendors or device generations.

Since the stuff is Apache License 2, feel free to reuse any part of the code, which can be found on github

EDIT :

If you only want to ship data, you might consider instantiating and persisting POJOs at the applications first start. BARACUS got a built-in support to this (Built-in key value store for configuration infos, eg "APP_FIRST_RUN" plus a after-context-bootstrap hook in order to run post-launch operations on the context). This enables you to have tight coupled data shipped with your app; in most cases this fitted to my use cases.


Currently there is no way to precreate an SQLite database to ship with your apk. The best you can do is save the appropriate SQL as a resource and run them from your application. Yes, this leads to duplication of data (same information exists as a resrouce and as a database) but there is no other way right now. The only mitigating factor is the apk file is compressed. My experience is 908KB compresses to less than 268KB.

The thread below has the best discussion/solution I have found with good sample code.

http://groups.google.com/group/android-developers/msg/9f455ae93a1cf152

I stored my CREATE statement as a string resource to be read with Context.getString() and ran it with SQLiteDatabse.execSQL().

I stored the data for my inserts in res/raw/inserts.sql (I created the sql file, 7000+ lines). Using the technique from the link above I entered a loop, read the file line by line and concactenated the data onto "INSERT INTO tbl VALUE " and did another SQLiteDatabase.execSQL(). No sense in saving 7000 "INSERT INTO tbl VALUE "s when they can just be concactenated on.

It takes about twenty seconds on the emulator, I do not know how long this would take on a real phone, but it only happens once, when the user first starts the application.


From what I've seen you should be be shipping a database that already has the tables setup and data. However if you want (and depending on the type of application you have) you can allow "upgrade database option". Then what you do is download the latest sqlite version, get the latest Insert/Create statements of a textfile hosted online, execute the statements and do a data transfer from the old db to the new one.


I wrote a library to simplify this process.

dataBase = new DataBase.Builder(context, "myDb").
//        setAssetsPath(). // default "databases"
//        setDatabaseErrorHandler().
//        setCursorFactory().
//        setUpgradeCallback()
//        setVersion(). // default 1
build();

It will create a dataBase from assets/databases/myDb.db file. In addition you will get all those functionality:

  • Load database from file
  • Synchronized access to the database
  • Using sqlite-android by requery, Android specific distribution of the latest versions of SQLite.

Clone it from library .


If the required data is not too large (limits I don´t know, would depend on a lot of things), you might also download the data (in XML, JSON, whatever) from a website/webapp. AFter receiving, execute the SQL statements using the received data creating your tables and inserting the data.

If your mobile app contains lots of data, it might be easier later on to update the data in the installed apps with more accurate data or changes.


In November 2017 Google released the Room Persistence Library

從文檔:

The Room persistence library provides an abstraction layer over SQLite to allow fluent database access while harnessing the full power of SQLite.

The library helps you create a cache of your app's data on a device that's running your app. This cache, which serves as your app's single source of truth, allows users to view a consistent copy of key information within your app, regardless of whether users have an internet connection.

The Room database has a callback when the database is first created or opened. You can use the create callback to populate your database.

Room.databaseBuilder(context.applicationContext,
        DataDatabase::class.java, "Sample.db")
        // prepopulate the database after onCreate was called
        .addCallback(object : Callback() {
            override fun onCreate(db: SupportSQLiteDatabase) {
                super.onCreate(db)
                // moving to a new thread
                ioThread {
                    getInstance(context).dataDao()
                                        .insert(PREPOPULATE_DATA)
                }
            }
        })
        .build()

Code from this blog post .


我修改了類和問題的答案,並編寫了一個允許通過DB_VERSION更新數據庫的類。

import android.content.Context;
import android.database.SQLException;
import android.database.sqlite.SQLiteDatabase;
import android.database.sqlite.SQLiteOpenHelper;

import java.io.File;
import java.io.FileOutputStream;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.io.InputStream;
import java.io.OutputStream;

public class DatabaseHelper extends SQLiteOpenHelper {
    private static String DB_NAME = "info.db";
    private static String DB_PATH = "";
    private static final int DB_VERSION = 1;

    private SQLiteDatabase mDataBase;
    private final Context mContext;
    private boolean mNeedUpdate = false;

    public DatabaseHelper(Context context) {
        super(context, DB_NAME, null, DB_VERSION);
        if (android.os.Build.VERSION.SDK_INT >= 17)
            DB_PATH = context.getApplicationInfo().dataDir + "/databases/";
        else
            DB_PATH = "/data/data/" + context.getPackageName() + "/databases/";
        this.mContext = context;

        copyDataBase();

        this.getReadableDatabase();
    }

    public void updateDataBase() throws IOException {
        if (mNeedUpdate) {
            File dbFile = new File(DB_PATH + DB_NAME);
            if (dbFile.exists())
                dbFile.delete();

            copyDataBase();

            mNeedUpdate = false;
        }
    }

    private boolean checkDataBase() {
        File dbFile = new File(DB_PATH + DB_NAME);
        return dbFile.exists();
    }

    private void copyDataBase() {
        if (!checkDataBase()) {
            this.getReadableDatabase();
            this.close();
            try {
                copyDBFile();
            } catch (IOException mIOException) {
                throw new Error("ErrorCopyingDataBase");
            }
        }
    }

    private void copyDBFile() throws IOException {
        InputStream mInput = mContext.getAssets().open(DB_NAME);
        //InputStream mInput = mContext.getResources().openRawResource(R.raw.info);
        OutputStream mOutput = new FileOutputStream(DB_PATH + DB_NAME);
        byte[] mBuffer = new byte[1024];
        int mLength;
        while ((mLength = mInput.read(mBuffer)) > 0)
            mOutput.write(mBuffer, 0, mLength);
        mOutput.flush();
        mOutput.close();
        mInput.close();
    }

    public boolean openDataBase() throws SQLException {
        mDataBase = SQLiteDatabase.openDatabase(DB_PATH + DB_NAME, null, SQLiteDatabase.CREATE_IF_NECESSARY);
        return mDataBase != null;
    }

    @Override
    public synchronized void close() {
        if (mDataBase != null)
            mDataBase.close();
        super.close();
    }

    @Override
    public void onCreate(SQLiteDatabase db) {

    }

    @Override
    public void onUpgrade(SQLiteDatabase db, int oldVersion, int newVersion) {
        if (newVersion > oldVersion)
            mNeedUpdate = true;
    }
}

使用一個類。

在活動類中,聲明變量。

private DatabaseHelper mDBHelper;
private SQLiteDatabase mDb;

在onCreate方法中,編寫下面的代碼。

mDBHelper = new DatabaseHelper(this);

try {
    mDBHelper.updateDataBase();
} catch (IOException mIOException) {
    throw new Error("UnableToUpdateDatabase");
}

try {
    mDb = mDBHelper.getWritableDatabase();
} catch (SQLException mSQLException) {
    throw mSQLException;
}

如果您將數據庫文件添加到文件夾res / raw,則使用以下修改類。

import android.content.Context;
import android.database.SQLException;
import android.database.sqlite.SQLiteDatabase;
import android.database.sqlite.SQLiteOpenHelper;

import java.io.File;
import java.io.FileOutputStream;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.io.InputStream;
import java.io.OutputStream;

public class DatabaseHelper extends SQLiteOpenHelper {
    private static String DB_NAME = "info.db";
    private static String DB_PATH = "";
    private static final int DB_VERSION = 1;

    private SQLiteDatabase mDataBase;
    private final Context mContext;
    private boolean mNeedUpdate = false;

    public DatabaseHelper(Context context) {
        super(context, DB_NAME, null, DB_VERSION);
        if (android.os.Build.VERSION.SDK_INT >= 17)
            DB_PATH = context.getApplicationInfo().dataDir + "/databases/";
        else
            DB_PATH = "/data/data/" + context.getPackageName() + "/databases/";
        this.mContext = context;

        copyDataBase();

        this.getReadableDatabase();
    }

    public void updateDataBase() throws IOException {
        if (mNeedUpdate) {
            File dbFile = new File(DB_PATH + DB_NAME);
            if (dbFile.exists())
                dbFile.delete();

            copyDataBase();

            mNeedUpdate = false;
        }
    }

    private boolean checkDataBase() {
        File dbFile = new File(DB_PATH + DB_NAME);
        return dbFile.exists();
    }

    private void copyDataBase() {
        if (!checkDataBase()) {
            this.getReadableDatabase();
            this.close();
            try {
                copyDBFile();
            } catch (IOException mIOException) {
                throw new Error("ErrorCopyingDataBase");
            }
        }
    }

    private void copyDBFile() throws IOException {
        //InputStream mInput = mContext.getAssets().open(DB_NAME);
        InputStream mInput = mContext.getResources().openRawResource(R.raw.info);
        OutputStream mOutput = new FileOutputStream(DB_PATH + DB_NAME);
        byte[] mBuffer = new byte[1024];
        int mLength;
        while ((mLength = mInput.read(mBuffer)) > 0)
            mOutput.write(mBuffer, 0, mLength);
        mOutput.flush();
        mOutput.close();
        mInput.close();
    }

    public boolean openDataBase() throws SQLException {
        mDataBase = SQLiteDatabase.openDatabase(DB_PATH + DB_NAME, null, SQLiteDatabase.CREATE_IF_NECESSARY);
        return mDataBase != null;
    }

    @Override
    public synchronized void close() {
        if (mDataBase != null)
            mDataBase.close();
        super.close();
    }

    @Override
    public void onCreate(SQLiteDatabase db) {

    }

    @Override
    public void onUpgrade(SQLiteDatabase db, int oldVersion, int newVersion) {
        if (newVersion > oldVersion)
            mNeedUpdate = true;
    }
}

http://blog.harrix.org/article/6784


我剛剛在ReignDesign博客的一篇名為“ 在Android應用程序中使用自己的SQLite數據庫 ”的文章中找到了一種方法。 基本上你預先創建你的數據庫,把它放到你的apk的資產目錄中,然後首先使用copy到“/ data / data / YOUR_PACKAGE / databases /”目錄。


我的解決方案既不使用任何第三方庫,也不會強制您在SQLiteOpenHelper子類上調用自定義方法以在創建時初始化數據庫。 它還負責數據庫升級。 所有需要完成的事情都是SQLiteOpenHelper子類。

先決條件:

  1. 您希望隨應用程序一起提供的數據庫。 它應該包含一個名為android_metadata的1x1表,其中除了對應用唯一的表之外,其屬性locale的值為en_US

子類化SQLiteOpenHelper

  1. 子類SQLiteOpenHelper
  2. SQLiteOpenHelper子類中創建一個private方法。 此方法包含將數據庫內容從'assets'文件夾中的數據庫文件複製到應用程序包上下文中創建的數據庫的邏輯。
  3. 覆蓋SQLiteOpenHelper onCreateonUpgrade onOpen方法。

說夠了。 這裡是SQLiteOpenHelper子類:

public class PlanDetailsSQLiteOpenHelper extends SQLiteOpenHelper {
    private static final String TAG = "SQLiteOpenHelper";

    private final Context context;
    private static final int DATABASE_VERSION = 1;
    private static final String DATABASE_NAME = "my_custom_db";

    private boolean createDb = false, upgradeDb = false;

    public PlanDetailsSQLiteOpenHelper(Context context) {
        super(context, DATABASE_NAME, null, DATABASE_VERSION);
        this.context = context;
    }

    /**
     * Copy packaged database from assets folder to the database created in the
     * application package context.
     * 
     * @param db
     *            The target database in the application package context.
     */
    private void copyDatabaseFromAssets(SQLiteDatabase db) {
        Log.i(TAG, "copyDatabase");
        InputStream myInput = null;
        OutputStream myOutput = null;
        try {
            // Open db packaged as asset as the input stream
            myInput = context.getAssets().open("path/to/shipped/db/file");

            // Open the db in the application package context:
            myOutput = new FileOutputStream(db.getPath());

            // Transfer db file contents:
            byte[] buffer = new byte[1024];
            int length;
            while ((length = myInput.read(buffer)) > 0) {
                myOutput.write(buffer, 0, length);
            }
            myOutput.flush();

            // Set the version of the copied database to the current
            // version:
            SQLiteDatabase copiedDb = context.openOrCreateDatabase(
                DATABASE_NAME, 0, null);
            copiedDb.execSQL("PRAGMA user_version = " + DATABASE_VERSION);
            copiedDb.close();

        } catch (IOException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
            throw new Error(TAG + " Error copying database");
        } finally {
            // Close the streams
            try {
                if (myOutput != null) {
                    myOutput.close();
                }
                if (myInput != null) {
                    myInput.close();
                }
            } catch (IOException e) {
                e.printStackTrace();
                throw new Error(TAG + " Error closing streams");
            }
        }
    }

    @Override
    public void onCreate(SQLiteDatabase db) {
        Log.i(TAG, "onCreate db");
        createDb = true;
    }

    @Override
    public void onUpgrade(SQLiteDatabase db, int oldVersion, int newVersion) {
        Log.i(TAG, "onUpgrade db");
        upgradeDb = true;
    }

    @Override
    public void onOpen(SQLiteDatabase db) {
        Log.i(TAG, "onOpen db");
        if (createDb) {// The db in the application package
            // context is being created.
            // So copy the contents from the db
            // file packaged in the assets
            // folder:
            createDb = false;
            copyDatabaseFromAssets(db);

        }
        if (upgradeDb) {// The db in the application package
            // context is being upgraded from a lower to a higher version.
            upgradeDb = false;
            // Your db upgrade logic here:
        }
    }
}

Finally, to get a database connection, just call getReadableDatabase() or getWritableDatabase() on the SQLiteOpenHelper subclass and it will take care of creating a db, copying db contents from the specified file in the 'assets' folder, if the database does not exist.

In short, you can use the SQLiteOpenHelper subclass to access the db shipped in the assets folder just as you would use for a database that is initialized using SQL queries in the onCreate() method.







android-database